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nutrition

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brad gatens

on 28 March 2014

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Transcript of nutrition

The universe of Nutrition
Nutraverse
Energy Balance and Body Comp
Energy balance and body comp
Energy Balance and Body Compostion
Energy Balance
Body Composition
Healthful weight change requires
Gradual change in energy intake
Regular and appropriate physical exercise
Application of behavior modification techniques
Achieving & maintaining healthy weight
Obesity: Having excess body fat that adversely effects health

BMI 30 - 39.9 kg/m2 = obese
BMI > 40 kg/m2 = morbidly obese
Body weight exceeds 100% of normal

Obesity & Morbid obesity
Underweight: having too little body fat to maintain health
BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2
Increases risk of infection and illness
Overweight:
BMI of 25 - 29.5 kg/m2
Some health risks; most importantly, adopt healthier lifestyle to avoid becoming obese
Disorders & Energy intake
Body Mass Index = BMI
BMI = weight (kg) / height (m)2
BMI values below 18.5 or above 30 have increased risks of health problems


Not the most accurate method !!!
Evaluating body weight
Appropriate for your age
Maintained without constant dieting
Is acceptable to you
Based on family history of body shape and weight
Promotes healthful eating habits and allows for regular physical activity
What is a healthful body weight?
Social factors influence our diet:
Family or cultural traditions
Holidays and celebrations
Easy access to high-fat foods
Less physically active lifestyles
Societal expectations of the “perfect” body
Social Factors
Hunger vs. Appetite, Food Choices, Eating habits, How much exercise and activity we perform
Behavioral Choices
20-35% of total energy budget

More intense exercise burns more calories. Increasing time of activity burns more calories
Physical Activity

Energy expended to digest and process food
~5-10% of total energy budget

Digestion
Factors affecting BMR
Basal Metabolic Rate, aka, your metabolism

The amount of energy burned at rest, or just being alve
B.M.R.
BMR
Physical activity
Digestion (TEF)
Energy Expenditure breakdown
When energy intake = energy expenditure

Energy intake = cal from food
Energy expenditure = energy expended at rest + during physical activity
Energy Balance
Gaining or losing weight depends on:
Energy intake vs. energy expenditure

What else influences BMR?:
Genetic factors
Childhood weight
Behavioral factors
Social factors
Gaining & Losing weight
BMR equation
Genetics can be favorable or unfavorable for body composition
Genetic factors
All of these examples represent ONE SERVING:
1 slice of bread
1 tortilla, roll, or english muffin
½ of a bagel
½ cup of Rice, pasta, cooked cereal, grits
1 Pancake or a waffle 1 (4" diamenter)
Grain Serving Sizes
Sugar
Bread
Rice
Cereal
Fruits
Vegetalbles
Milk
Carbohydrate foods
Every food we eat is one of the three macronutrients, or a combination of them
1. List all the foods you ate for the last 24 hours. Include all meals and snacks.
NOTE: List each ingredient in the most basic form.
(see next slide for example)
2. Next to each food, write down what food group you think it is in.
3. Guess how many servings you ate of that food, based on what you have learned in this presentation.
Write it down!
Look back at your food choices in the MEAT group. Use the portion size of a deck of cards to guess how many portions you ate of MEAT.
Write (2 servings) next to the food if you think it was two decks of cards.
Think about it…
Having too many or too few calories in your diet is not healthy.





Find the balance between your calories you take in and the calories you burn off to stay healthy!
“Eyeball” Your Portion Sizes
Example: If you wrote that you ate a whole wheat bagel in the GRAIN group, that means you really ate 2 servings. Next to the grain, write “2 servings” to help you understand how many servings you ate.
So, if you ate one whole wheat bagel, your paper should look like this:

Whole wheat bagel (2 servings)
Think about it…
Look back at your food choices you listed in the GRAIN group. How many servings did you eat when you ate this food? Next to the food you listed, write down how many servings you ate. (see example on next slide)
Think about it…
Teens need about 6 - 7 servings GRAINS
The next slide shows ONE SERVING SIZE for some popular foods in the GRAIN group.
Note: Some children will need more or less servings, depending on their gender, size, activity level and growth.
Grain Serving Sizes
MyPyramid tells you exact
amounts of each type of food
Sizing Up Portions
Source: www.fns.usda.gov/tn/tnrockyrun/whatsa.htm
A MyPyramid Portion Is Usually Less Than What Americans Eat
Sizing Up Portions
With MyPyramid Guidelines
Fats that are liquid at room temperature
Come from many different plants and from fish
Oils
Dressings
Nuts
Some meats
Dairy
Oils
Fat Foods
Contains fat
Oil Group
Carbohydrates
Fat
Protein
Macronutrients
24 hour dietary recall
List all the foods and drinks you have consumed in the last 24 hours
One line per food or drink
Be as specific as possible

http://bit.ly/1g7udBP
Do now
MyPyramid recommends total amounts, not “servings”
Gives more specific guidelines about types and amounts to eat than Food Guide Pyramid









pyramid
Portions
MyPyramid recommends total amounts, not “servings”









pyramid
Portions
http://www.mypyramid.gov/downloads/MyPyramid_education_framework.pdf
They are low in discretionary calories!
“Nutrient-dense” foods provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and relatively fewer calories.
Definition: “Nutrient-dense” Foods
Potato chips- Vegetable


Ice cream-Milk


Bacon-Meat
Unhealthy Examples
Used like a vegetable from a culinary perspective
Typically served as a meal, or part of a main course of a meal
It would be considered a vegetable (a culinary term which has no botanical meaning)
Tomato-Fruit or Vegetable?
Foods high in solid fats include:
Many cheeses
Creams
Ice creams
Well-marbled cuts of meats
Regular ground beef
Bacon
Sausages
Poultry skin
Many baked goods (such as cookies, crackers, donuts, pastries, and croissants)
Foods High in Solid Fats
Solid fats
Solid at room temperature
Examples-butter and shortening
Come from many animal foods
Can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation
Solid Fats
Foods that are mainly oil include:
Mayonnaise
Certain salad dressings
Soft (tub or squeeze) margarine with no trans fats
Oils
Common oils
Canola oil
Corn oil
Cottonseed oil
Olive oil
Safflower oil
Soybean oil
Sunflower oil
Oils used mainly as flavorings
Walnut oil
Sesame oil
Oils
Because oils contain essential fatty acids, there is an allowance for oils in MyPyramid
Recommended intake ranges from 3 to 5 teaspoons daily based on age, gender and level of physical activity
MyPyramid: Oils
Eat the equivalent of 2½ cups of raw or cooked vegetables per day *
Equivalents:
1 cup vegetables
2 cups raw leafy greens = 1 cup of vegetables
MyPyramid: Vegetables
“Vary Your Veggies”
Dairy
Meat
Beans
Fish
Nuts
Protein Foods
Fruits
carbohydrates

Vegetables
carbohydrates
6 food groups and macronutrient content
What Questions Do You Have?
http://mypyramid.gov/pyramid/discretionary_calories_sugars.html
Regular soft drinks
Candy
Cakes
Cookies
Pies
Fruit drinks, such as fruitades and fruit punch
Milk-based desserts and products, such as ice cream, sweetened yogurt and sweetened milk
Grain products, such as sweet rolls and cinnamon toast
Foods Containing Most of the Added Sugars in American Diets
http://www.mypyramid.gov/downloads/MyPyramid_education_framework.pdf
Added sugars are sugars and syrups that are added to foods during processing or preparation
Added sugars do not include naturally occurring sugars such as those which occur in milk and fruits
Added Sugars
In both Vegetable and Meat and Beans Group.
They grow like a vegetable but have nutritional value similar to meats.
Why Are Beans in 2 Groups?
Botanically a fruit
Tomato-Fruit or Vegetable?
Some common solid fats are:
Butter
Beef fat (tallow, suet)
Chicken fat
Pork fat (lard)
Stick margarine
Shortening
Solid Fats
1½ oz. natural cheese
2 oz. processed cheese
Equivalents:
8 oz. milk
1 cup yogurt
Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products
Children ages 2 to 8: 2 cups per day
Children ages 9 & up: 3 cups per day
MyPyramid: Milk
“Get Your Calcium-Rich Foods”
Note this equivalent:
¼ cup dried fruit = ½ cup fruit
Eat the equivalent of 2 cups of fresh, canned or frozen fruits per day*
MyPyramid: Fruits
“Focus on Fruits”
*2,000 calorie diet level
Eat 6 servings each day *
Try to have 3 servings or more of whole-grain products
Remaining grains should come from enriched or whole-grain products

Some examples of a serving:
½ cup cooked pasta, cooked rice or cooked cereal
1 cup ready-to-eat cereal
1 slice bread
MyPyramid: Grains
“Make Half Your Grains Whole”
Grains
Contain carbohydrates

Milk
protein and fat

Meat and Beans
Contains protein and possibly fat
6 food groups and macronutrient content
½ cup = ½ baseball

1 cup = 1 baseball
Portion sizes: ½ and 1 cup
Visual Portion
? ? ?
? ? ?
Would whole milk be near the TOP
or the BOTTOM of MyPyramid?
Where Do Foods Fit on the Continuum ?

OR
Can count a portion as either Vegetable Group or Meat and Beans Group
Beans
Foods naturally high in oils
Nuts
Olives
Some fish
Avocados
Oils
1 ounce-equivalent:
1 ounce meat, poultry or fish
1/4 cup cooked dry beans or peas
1 tablespoon peanut butter
1/2 ounce nuts or seeds
1 egg
*2,000 calorie diet level
Eat 5-6 ounce-equivalents*
Choose lean meat and poultry
Vary choices – more fish, beans, peas, nuts and seeds
MyPyramid: Meat & Beans
“Go LEAN with PROTEIN”
1 tablespoon = about 3 thumb tips to the first joint
1 teaspoon = about the tip of a thumb to the first joint
Portion sizes: 1 tsp. & 1 tbsp.
Visual Portion
A typical 3 ounce portion of cooked meat, fish, or poultry = a deck of cards
Portion sizes: Meat
Visual Portion
Equivalent to 1 cup milk (2 oz. processed cheese – 8 dice – also are equivalent to 1 cup milk)
1½ ounces of natural cheese = 6 dice
1 serving of Cheese
Visual Portion
http://mypyramid.gov/pyramid/discretionary_calories_sugars.html
Invert Sugar
Lactose
Maltose
Malt syrup
Molasses
Raw sugar
Sucrose
Sugar
Syrup
Brown sugar
Corn sweetener
Corn syrup
Dextrose
Fructose
Fruit juice concentrates
Glucose
High fructose corn syrup
Honey
Words That Indicate ADDED Sugar
http://mypyramid.gov/pyramid/discretionary_calories.html
1 medium croissant has 230 calories; 95 of the
calories are “discretionary
calories”
2 slices whole wheat bread have 140 calories and NO “discretionary calories”
2 slices of whole wheat bread are more “nutrient-dense” and have no “discretionary calories”
Answer
3 food groups- but are these the best choices?
Would You Choose This Meal?
Widths are a
general guide
to proportions
Different food
group bands
shown by
different widths
PROPORTIONALITY
S
L
I
O
MEAT & BEANS
MILK
FRUITS
VEGETABLES
GRAINS
Anatomy of MyPyramid
Foods from all
colors are
needed daily
6 color bands
represent the 5 different
food groups
and oils
Variety
S
L
I
O
MEAT & BEANS
MILK
FRUITS
VEGETABLES
GRAINS
Anatomy of MyPyramid
Butter
Beef fat (tallow, suet)
Chicken fat
Pork fat (lard)
Stick margarine
Shortening
Solid Fats
Protects organs
Provides insulation
Necessary for growth and development
Absorption of vitamins
Controls hormones
Protects and maintains skin, brain, and nerves
Functions
Fat 1 gram =
Essential amino acids
Non-essential amino acids
Types
Builds, maintains, and repairs body tissue
Repairs and builds muscle
Improves the immune system
Hormones are made from protein
Functions
Composition of amino acids that are essential to the body
Definition
Protein 1 gram =
Types
Types
Foods containing starches and sugars
Defintion
Carbs
Essential (Helpful) : Omega 3 and omega 6
Non Essential (Harmful): trans-fat
Types
Fatty acids that are a substance found in food essential to the body
Definition
Supplies energy to the body
The bodies favorite type of energy
Function
https://www.evernote.com/shard/s11/sh/882cc2ce-b130-408d-ac0c-0ed043fc2e27/c0144c4d6017aacef4e12987b04be0b6
(Macronutrient quiz)

https://www.evernote.com/shard/s11/sh/61679796-aec2-42a2-99be-360f7d0ea393/b08ebd3c78c50b8e9f73ebb887b09b2e

Nutrition Vocab

3 Causes of obesity
BMR
What Influences BMR?
What influences BMR?
3 ways we burn calories:
Physical activity
Physical activity
Eating 5-10%
Exercising and physical activity 20-40%
BMR 60-70%
3 ways we burn calories
Eating
Body composition is made up of: Lean mass and fat mass.

Lean mass includes:
6 Food groups:

meat---protein
grains----carbs
dairy----protein,fat
oils----fat
vegetables---carbs
fruit----carbs

1 gram =
How many calories?
Full transcript