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Enlightenment

Global 10 Fairport High School Rachford / Stokes
by

Gayle Rachford

on 4 September 2015

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Transcript of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment, c. 1637 - 1789
The Enlightenment
was a period of 17th to 18th century European history - following the period of
Humanism
- that significantly changed the ways in which people thought about education, government, justice, religion, science, and their daily lives. Also known as "
The Age of Reason
", historians call it a "
turning point
" because people fundamentally

changed their
world view
as a direct result of this time. Critical to our study are the writings of a few key people, most importantly -
Voltaire
, John
Locke
& Jean-Jacques
Rousseau
- known by students as "
the philosophes
".
What was "The Enlightenment"?
"The Enlightenment - Part 1"
Decartes, Bacon, & Newton
Prior to the
Scientific Revolution
(c. 1543 - c. 1800) people relied upon
Biblical scripture
and its interpretation by
religious clerics
to explain their experience of
phenomena
in the world. Many people believed that events in life were caused exclusively by good or by evil spirits. Changes in
technology
allowed for closer observation of the universe, the natural world, and the human body using
empirical evidence
and
reason
to
critically
argue one's claims. These developments rendered
mysticism
,
superstition
, and traditional thoughts rooted in
faith
open for debate, discussion, and ultimately, disagreement. This threatened the absolute power of European monarchies and the Catholic Church.
Science and Reason
The Enlightenment - Part 2
Science, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Jefferson
Rene Descartes, 1596 - 1650
"
Cogito ergo sum
" = "
I think, therefore I am
"
"
We think that the greatest service to be done to men is to teach them to use their
reason
, only to hold for truth what they have verified and proved.
"

Descartes' quote is
monumentally
incredible because he was single-handedly challenging the
absolute authority
of the monarchs of Europe, the Bible, the Roman Catholic Church and the
clerics
who communicated "truth" to the people of Europe. He
contradicted
traditional medieval European beliefs in his book Discourse on Method, published in 1637.
Francis Bacon, 1561 - 1626
"
...looking upon the examples with the eye of severity, but upon the person with the eye of pity and compassion.
"
Bacon emphasized the use of
evidence
to prove an
argument
. His development of
empiricism
- knowing through experience rather than
superstition
- further eroded the credibility of
absolute authority
as held by
divine right monarchs
and the
Catholic Church
. Interestingly, he was knighted by
James I
of England and made
Attorney General
during his
reign
.
Sir Isaac Newton, 1642 - 1727
"
...and to every action there is always an equal and opposite or contrary, reaction.
"
Sir Isaac
Newton
is considered the most influential scientist and mathematician to have ever lived. His book, '
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
', proved that the laws of motion and gravity largely control the movement of the planets in our solar system - further supporting the merits of
heliocentrism
developed first by Copernicus and Galileo during the 16th century Renaissance. Newton is also known for his development of
calculus
, which makes modern scientific calculations possible.
Fathers of the Enlightenment...
Denis Diderot, 1713 - 1784
Knowledge and Reason
John Locke
is, perhaps, the most influential Enlightenment thinker on the
motivations
and
justifications
of the
American and French Revolutions
. His book, '
Two Treatises on Government
' further argued that
life, liberty, and property
were essential elements of the
social contract theory
, also discussed at length by
Rousseau
and
Hobbes
. Locke believed that people, in their natural state, are good and primarily motivated by
reason
. American Founding Father,
Thomas Jefferson
, used Locke's ideas when he authored our
Declaration of Independence
in the summer of 1776.
John Locke, 1632 - 1704
Human Rights
The Enlightenment's impact on the world...
Revolution
Constitution
Locke’s Two Treatises of Government, Rousseau’s The Social Contract, and Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws were works written during which time period?
(1) Middle Ages
(2) Renaissance
(3) Enlightenment
(4) Reformation
In what ways will the Global Regents ask YOU about The Enlightenment?
Voltaire, 1694 - 1778
Known by his
pen-name
,
Voltaire
was an 18th century '
philosoph
' whose ideas and written works are credited with inspiring both the
American
and the
French Revolutions
. He
advocated
for many of the
civil liberties
we enjoy as American citizens today, such as religious freedom, free speech, free trade, and a separation between church and state. A
satirist
, he used
subtle irony
and humor in his books to criticize the absolute monarchs of Europe. 'Candide' - "...all is for the best, in the best of all possible worlds..." - is an excellent example of his
satirical
style and well worth reading!
Montesquieu, 1689 - 1755
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de
Montesquieu
was a French
aristocrat
and
courtier
of Louis XV. His authorship of '
The Spirit of the Laws
' makes him an important figure of the Enlightenment's
political revolution
. His aim was to describe the principles for scientifically studying a society and
advocate
for what he thought a society 'ought' to be like, rather than how it actually was during his lifetime. Montesquieu believed in "
natural laws
" that, today, are the foundations for
human rights
theory. He also further developed
Plato
's concept of "
Three Types of Government
" -
republican
(virtue),
monarchical
(glory),
despotic
(fear) - and argued that the type of government one lives under determines the motivation of its leaders and the world view of its people.
"The Romanitcs - BBC documentary - Liberty (2005)"
Diderot & Rousseau 3:57-13:03
Founding editor of the '
Encyclopedie
', or '
Encyclopedia
' as we know it today. Imagine a world where the collection of material knowledge was illegal, where the Bible was the core source of knowledge about the universe and all that it contains.
Diderot
set out to make record of all knowledge known to humanity through his time; now, people could find answers to their questions independently. Diderot suffered arrest on the order of the French government under Louis XVI and witnessed the banning of the 'Encyclopedie' on several occasions. His work opened the door for a revolutionary approach to thought and education for all people.
How do you know what you know? Do you ever think about "thinking", itself? The study of thought or knowledge is called '
epistemology
' and it concerns three primary questions:
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712 - 1778
Our understanding of not only the world but also ourselves is largely due to the writings of
Rousseau
. His
monumental
book, "
Emile
"
advocated
for a
conscientious
education for all - a completely revolutionary idea at the time. Likewise, his books '
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
' and '
On the Social Contract
' brought monarchy to its knees as citizens began to expect their governments to respect their
human rights
and rule with their
consent
- or face
revolution
.
In a "
State of Nature
", human beings rely on individual power and their own
conscience
to survive and relate to others.
A little political philosophy...
People give up some of their
freedoms
from the
state of nature
to a government, in exchange for the protection of their
civil liberties
under a "
social contract
".
Governments
must respect the individuals who live under their
authority
and
administer
laws that are fair and
just
to all
citizens
.
To prevent a
conflict of interest
and limit the absolute power of the government, there should be a clear
separation between church and state
- and within the state a
separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers
.
Property
and
wealth
are the direct results of one's
labor
. Because a person worked for their property, they are
entitled
to keep it rather than
dedicate
it to the government. A government should not
confiscate
property

or one's labor (
corvee
), rather, it should protect an individual's right to it under the
law
.
Governments gain their
legitimacy
through the "
consent of the people
". If a government does not follow through with its
obligations
under the
social contract
, the citizens bear the duty to remove that government from power by whatever means necessary - even
revolution
.
Quick note...
"liberty" in the 16th & 17th centuries meant 'freedom from taxation', which many wealthy individuals in Europe wished to enjoy.
One way in which Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau are similar is that they were
(1) philosophers during the Age of Enlightenment
(2) chief ministers during the French Revolution
(3) leaders of the Italian unification movement
(4) supporters of the Counter Reformation
Speaker A: I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it.

Speaker B: Government has no other end, but the preservation of property.

Speaker C: Man is born free, and everywhere he is in shackles.

45 Which historical period is best represented in the ideas expressed by these speakers?
(1) Enlightenment
(2) Counter Reformation
(3) Age of Exploration
(4) Early Middle Ages

Which historical figure expressed ideas that are most similar to those of Speaker B?
(1) Thomas Malthus
(2) John Locke
(3) Peter the Great
(4) Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
The English Bill of Rights and the political philosophy of John Locke both support the idea of a
(1) coalition government
(2) fascist dictatorship
(3) Marxist dictatorship
(4) limited government
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke both agreed that a government should be based on the
(1) separation of nationalities
(2) religious values of the people
(3) equal distribution of wealth
(4) consent of the governed
Part II THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Theme: Change — Ideas
The ideas of individuals have had a significant influence on groups, nations, and regions.

Task:
Select two individuals and for each
• Explain a specific idea developed by the individual
• Describe the historical circumstances that surrounded the development of the idea
• Discuss how the idea influenced a group or a nation or a region

You may use any individual whose ideas had a significant influence from your study of global history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Confucius, Niccolò Machiavelli, Galileo Galilei,
John Locke
, Simón Bolívar, Karl Marx, Kemal Atatürk, Nelson Mandela, Deng Xiaoping, and Mikhail Gorbachev.
Part II THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION

Theme: Culture and Intellectual Life
Intellectuals, philosophers, and leaders have often recorded their ideas in written works. These ideas have been used throughout history to guide societies and influence the course of national and regional development.

Task:
Select two intellectuals, philosophers, and/or leaders and a writing associated with that person and for each
• Describe the historical circumstances surrounding this writing
• Describe a main idea found in this writing
• Discuss how this idea has influenced the development of a nation or region

You may use any intellectuals, philosophers, or leaders from your study of global history.

Some suggestions you might wish to consider include:
Bartolomé de las Casas—Brief Report on the Destruction of the Indians
Martin Luther—Ninety-five Theses
John Locke—Two Treatises on Government
Olympe de Gouges—The Declaration of the Rights of Woman
Karl Marx—Communist Manifesto
Theodor Herzl—On the Jewish State
Adolf Hitler—Mein Kampf
Mao Zedong—Little Red Book
Nelson Mandela—Long Walk to Freedom
According to John Locke, the purpose of government is to
(1) protect the natural rights of individuals
(2) serve the monarch
(3) create overseas settlements
(4) stimulate the economy
In 'Two Treatises of Government', John Locke wrote that the purpose of government was to
(1) keep kings in power
(2) regulate the economy
(3) expand territory
(4) protect natural rights
Which person is credited with saying “L’état, c’est moi” (I am the state)?
(1) Louis XIV
(2) John Locke
(3) Karl Marx
(4) Queen Isabella
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
One contribution that John Locke made to Enlightenment philosophy was the idea that
(1) absolute monarchies should continue
(2) the punishment should fit the crime
(3) individual rights should be denied
(4) governments should be based on the consent of the people
According to John Locke, the chief role of government was to
(1) protect natural rights
(2) fight territorial wars
(3) ensure the wealth of citizens
(4) redistribute land
Locke’s 'Two Treatises of Government', Rousseau’s 'The Social Contract', and Montesquieu’s 'The Spirit of the Laws' were works written during which time period?
(1) Middle Ages
(2) Renaissance
(3) Enlightenment
(4) Reformation
PART II THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION

Theme: Change
The ideas and beliefs of philosophers and leaders have led to changes in nations and regions.

Task:
Choose two philosophers and/or leaders and for each
• Explain a major idea or belief of that philosopher or leader
• Discuss how that idea or belief changed one nation or region

You may use any philosophers or leaders from your study of global history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Confucius,
John Locke
, Adam Smith, Simón Bolívar, Otto von Bismarck, Vladimir Lenin, Mohandas Gandhi, Mao Zedong, Fidel Castro, or Nelson Mandela.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke both agreed that a government should be based on the
(1) separation of nationalities
(2) religious values of the people
(3) equal distribution of wealth
(4) consent of the governed
One way in which Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau are similar is that they were
(1) philosophers during the Age of Enlightenment
(2) chief ministers during the French Revolution
(3) leaders of the Italian unification movement
(4) supporters of the Counter Reformation
Kim Jong Il and Fidel Castro are 21st-century leaders who believe in the ideas of
(1) Karl Marx
(2) Adam Smith
(3) Siddhartha Gautama
(4) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
FOIL ALERT! ...FOIL ALERT!
Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton are most closely associated with
(1) initiating religious reforms
(2) leading political revolutions
(3) conducting investigative experiments
(4) engaging in foreign conquests
• Vasco da Gama discovered an all-water route from Europe to India.
• Ferdinand Magellan’s crew circumnavigated the globe.
• Issac Newton defined the forces of gravity.

These events relate most directly to
(1) revised understandings of natural surroundings
(2) questioning the benefits of the mercantile system
(3) increased suspicion between different religions
(4) development of new manufacturing techniques
In the late 1400s and early 1500s, what was a major reason for the European voyages of exploration?
(1) introduction of
Enlightenment
ideas
(2) desire to control Constantinople
(3) rapid industrialization
(4) need for alternate trade routes
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
The document so frantically cobbled together was stunning in its sweep and simplicity. Never once mentioning king, nobility, or church, it declared the “natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man” to be the foundation of any and all government. It assigned sovereignty to the nation, not the king, and pronounced everyone equal before the law, thus opening positions to talent and merit and implicitly eliminating all privilege based on birth. More striking than any particular guarantee, however, was the universality of the claims made. References to” men,” “man,” “every man,” “all men,” “all citizens,” “each citizen,” “society,” and “every society” dwarfed the single reference to the French people.

— Lynn Hunt, Inventing Human Rights: A History, W. W. Norton & Company

This passage discusses ideals most directly associated with the
(1) Golden Age of Islam
(2) Reign of Charlemagne
(3) Reformation
(4) Enlightenment
Enlightenment thinkers encouraged the improvement of society through the
(1) teachings of the church
(2) use of reason
(3) development of absolutism
(4) establishment of a rigid social hierarchy
Many Enlightenment philosophers used reason to
(1) reinforce traditional beliefs
(2) strengthen religious authority
(3) reveal natural laws
(4) encourage censorship
Which period is most closely associated with the major ideas of these philosophers?
(1) Crusades
(2) Renaissance
(3) Reconquista
(4) Enlightenment
One way in which Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau are similar is that they were
(1) philosophers during the Age of Enlightenment
(2) chief ministers during the French Revolution
(3) leaders of the Italian unification movement
(4) supporters of the Counter Reformation
“Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope’s indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved;”

45 Which period in European history is most closely associated with this statement?
(1) Roman Empire
(2) Crusades
(3) Protestant Reformation
(4) Enlightenment
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
Which period in European history is most closely associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, William Shakespeare, and Nicolaus Copernicus?
(1) Early Middle Ages
(2) Renaissance
(3) Age of Absolutism
(4) Enlightenment
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
One similarity between Martin Luther and Henry VIII is that they
(1) argued against the establishment of a theocratic state
(2) protested against the ideas of the Enlightenment
(3) died during the Reign of Terror
(4) challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
Part II THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task below, and a conclusion.

Theme: Change
Not all revolutions are political. Nonpolitical revolutions have brought important intellectual, economic, and/or social changes to societies.

Task:
Identify two nonpolitical revolutions that brought important intellectual, economic, and/or social changes to societies and for each

• Describe one change brought about by this nonpolitical revolution
• Discuss an impact this nonpolitical revolution had on a specific society or societies

You may use any nonpolitical revolution that brought important intellectual, economic, and/or social changes from your study of global history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include the Neolithic Revolution (10,000–6,000 B.C.), the Commercial Revolution (11th–18th centuries), the Scientific Revolution (16th–18th centuries), the Enlightenment (17th–18th centuries), the Agricultural Revolution (18th–19th centuries), the Industrial Revolution in Europe (18th–19th centuries), and the Green Revolution (late 20th century).
Document 3
Emergence of “Dual Russia”
The Petrine [Peter’s] Reform is often seen as the main cause and the starting point of the irrevocable [unalterable] split of Russian society into two parts. Peter’s reforms transformed the upper levels of Russian society while the masses remained largely unaffected by them. Peter had forced the nobility to acquire technical knowledge of Western Europe and to adopt European styles of dress and manners. An increasingly Europeanized education of the upper classes brought with it a familiarity with the philosophies and theories of the
Enlightenment
. Soon many Russian nobles even preferred to speak the languages of Western Europe (particularly French and German) to Russian. By the nineteenth century their world was European in dress, manners, food, education, attitudes, and language, and was completely alien to the way of life of the Russian popular masses. . . .
Source: Alexander Chubarov, The Fragile Empire: A History of Imperial Russia, Continuum

3 According to Alexander Chubarov, what was one long-term effect Peter the Great’s reform had on the upper
classes of Russian society?
Which statement expresses an idea of the Enlightenment?
(1) The king is sacred and answers only to God.
(2) History is a continuous struggle between social classes.
(3) Those who are the most fit will survive and succeed.
(4) All individuals have natural rights.
Which period of history is depicted in this cartoon?
(1) Industrial Revolution
(2) Age of Enlightenment
(3) Age of Imperialism
(4) Cold War
FOIL ALERT! ...FOIL ALERT!
Which cause-and-effect relationship is accurate?
(1) The Russian Revolution led to an absolute monarchy.
(2) Enlightenment thoughts led to manorialism.
(3) The Black Plague led to labor shortages.
(4) The Commercial Revolution led to the creation of traditional economies.
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
. . . The Laws ought to be so framed, as to secure the Safety of every Citizen as much as possible.
. . . The Equality of the Citizens consists in this; that they should all be subject to the same Laws.

— Documents of Catherine the Great, W. F. Reddaway, ed., Cambridge University Press

These ideas of Catherine the Great of Russia originated during the
(1) Age of Exploration
(2) Age of Enlightenment
(3) Protestant Reformation
(4) French Revolution
• Leonardo DaVinci used movement and perspective in his work.
• Machiavelli’s The Prince advised rulers on how to gain and maintain power.
• Humanist scholars examined worldly subjects and classical culture.

Which period is associated with these statements?
(1) French Revolution
(2) Renaissance
(3) Early Middle Ages
(4) Enlightenment
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
Which period of history had the greatest influence on the Enlightenment ideas of natural law and reason?
(1) Pax Romana
(2) Middle Ages
(3) Age of Exploration
(4) Scientific Revolution
These ideas will lead us to the Age of Revolutions!
The Enlightenment
brought these questions into people's minds when they had not been there before. During the
Age of Absolutism
, individuals did not consider their own thoughts important enough to
contemplate
and trusted the
monarch
to think and speak for them to a great extent. The new awareness of individual thought brought on by the
philosophes
was as incredible as splitting the atom during the
Atomic Age
and creating the Internet in the 20th century or landing a rover on Mars in the 21st century.
Locke,
Diderot
and
Rousseau
were three philosophes who brought the development of
epistemology
to
Europe
.
What is knowledge?
How is knowledge
acquired
?
To what extent is it possible to truly "know" something?
Which title best completes this graphic organizer?
(1) Reasons for Latin American Independence Movements
(2) Impact of the
Scientific Revolution
(3) Causes of the Industrial Revolution
(4) Results of Nationalism in Europe
FOIL ALERT! ...FOIL ALERT!
Which pair of ideas were central to the Scientific Revolution?
(1) social stability and economic self-sufficiency
(2) observation and experimentation
(3) technology and military expansion
(4) scarcity and interdependence
• Focus on individual achievement
• Use of classical Greek and Roman ideas
• Artistic works of Leonardo da Vinci

Which time period is most closely associated with these characteristics?
(1) Hellenistic Golden Age
(2) Early Middle Ages
(3) European Renaissance
(4) Scientific Revolution
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
Which statement about the Scientific Revolution in Europe is accurate?
(1) The existence of natural laws was rejected.
(2) Scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the universe.
(3) New ideas supported the geocentric theory of Ptolemy.
(4) The Bible was used to justify new scientific findings.
“. . . Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope’s indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved; . . .”
— Martin Luther

Which period in European history is most directly related to this statement?
(1) Age of Exploration
(2) Scientific Revolution
(3) Crusades
(4) Protestant Reformation
. . . Our foundation rests upon trade, because, as you see, we have a large part of our capital invested [in it]. And therefore we shall have little for exchange operations, and we are forced to exert our ingenuity elsewhere. This, however, in my opinion, does not involve greater risk than one incurs in exchanges today, especially when no risks at sea are run [That is, when shipments by sea are insured.]; nor does it bring smaller profits. And [trade operations] are more legal and more honorable. In them we shall so govern ourselves that every day you will have more reason to be content; may God grant us His grace. . . .

Source: Letter to the home office of the Medici from branch office at Bruges, May 14, 1464

This passage best illustrates circumstances that characterized the
(1) Crusades
(2) Age of Reason
(3) Commercial Revolution
(4) Scientific Revolution
FOIL ALERT! ... FOIL ALERT!
Renaissance thinkers who impacted the Enlightenment scientists...
1300 AD
1687
1637
1514 ~
Heliocentrism
develops
The Renaissance begins!
Copernicus writes "Commentariolus" and theorizes that the Earth is NOT the center of our universe, but the book does not appear in complete print until 1878!
1638 ~
Galileo
writes "Two New Sciences" and further validates heliocentrism.
Galileo's work was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615 and found, "
vehemently
suspect of
heresy
" for supporting
heliocentrism
and criticizing
Pope Urban VIII
. He spent the rest of his life under house arrest!
The Enlightenment begins!
Descartes ~ Use
reason
to find truth!
1644
Bacon ~ Use
evidence
to prove your argument!
1584
Newton ~

Copernicus & Galileo were right!
Gravity
and the laws of
physics
govern our universe not mystical spirits or kings!
Voltaire ~ Writing "Crush the infamous!" was his way of
criticizing
the French monarchy in its attempt to persecute Protestants and keep people ignorant of its abusive power.
1762
Death of Calas
1748
Montesquieu ~ Rather than accepting the word of the king and the clergy as law, let us
separate the powers of government into THREE equal branches
so that any one branch cannot exceed the power of the others!
1689
Locke ~ We are ALL born with
natural human rights
. When we are born within a nation, we silently agree to hand our natural rights to our government in exchange for security and collective well-being. We call this agreement the
Social Contract
. If our government does not respect and protect our natural rights, we have the right and the duty to REBEL!
1762
Rousseau ~

Writing "Man is
born free
and everywhere he is in chains!" was his way of saying that people have the power and that monarchy was NOT
legitimized
by divine authority. Let the
general will
reign!
1772
Diderot ~ I will give people access to
all the knowledge of the world
in my monumental work, the "
Encycleopedie
". Although the French government will harass me for twenty long years, my efforts will set the masses free from the control of the king and the clergy!
#4 is correct!
Descartes' book "Discourse on Method" is published.
1651
Hobbes ~ believed that in war, every man is against every man. Therefore, power must be
ABSOLUTE
but must also respect the
Social Contract
. He wrote "Leviathan" to
articulate
his theory.
US Constitution ~ 1789
The Constitution was directly influenced by John Lock's "Two Treatises of Government" where he argues that a government has the responsibility to protect each individual's
LIFE
,
LIBERTY
, and
PROPERTY
. The Americans also established three equal branches of government and a
bicameral

legislature
to best represent the interests of the people and property owners.
American Revolution ~ 1776
In 1776, under complaint of heavy taxation, the American colonists protested their lack of representation in the English Parliament. They rebelled against King George III and declared their independence calling for "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness".
French Declaration of the Rights of Man ~ 1789
French Revolution ~ 1789
In 1789, Enlightenment ideals finally became matters of action in France as common people and members of the aristocracy overthrew the Old Regime in favor of social equality, citizenship, and inalienable human and political rights.
That's an angry mob in New York City tearing down a statue of King George III!
That's King Louis XVI's head!
An angry mob toppled the statue of Louis XIV!
Declaration of Rights of Man ~ France
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1600s
1800s
1700s
Bill of Rights ~ England
Petition of Right ~ England
Declaration of Independence ~ USA
Bill of Rights ~ USA
Hatt-i Humayun ~ Ottoman Empire
1856
1789 - 1791
1789
1776
1689
1628
Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens in the People's Republic of China
1948
1949
1960
Canadian Bill of Rights
1900s
1998
Human Rights Act ~ UK
2000s
Charter of the Fundamental Rights of the European Union
2005
A leviathan creature!!
Natural Law
Used by the world's Christian churches...
...written and governed through the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church.
originated near the year 50AD at the Council of Jerusalem...
Secular Law
Canon Law
...often through legislatures...
Laws made by governments...
...often based on moral standards widely accepted by people.
Law determined by nature...
...applies to all human beings universally...
...certain rights or values are inherent by virtue of human reason or human nature.
Full transcript