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Liberalism

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on 8 December 2014

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Transcript of Liberalism

Liberalism
History
Classical Liberalism
Key Ideas
Reason
World has a rational structure, uncovered through:
- Exercise of human reason
- Human Enquiry
Individualism
Equality
Toleration
Consent
Constitutionalism
-> allows individuals to make their own moral decisions
-> Goal: to construct a society within which individuals can flourish and develop
-> maintaining the political and economic independence of the individual
->
Legal
equality:
„equality before the law“
->
Political
equality:
„one person, one vote; one vote, one value“
Equality and Liberalism
"equality of opportunity"
-> Principle of meritocracy ~ "rule by the talented"
Bill of Rights, USA
-> establishment of a codified constitution
-> government regarded as a vital guarantee of order and stability in society
-> danger: government may become a tyranny against individual
Goal:
the
Constitution
needs to live for as long as one human remains alive
Laissez-faire
-> "let them do as they will"
-> a sub-category of capitalism
The
"necessary evil"
"necessary"
-> establishes order and security
"evil"
-> limits the freedom and liberty of individuals
Individual liberty
freedom of ...
-religion
-speech
-press
-assembly
-markets
= Social Darwinism
Liberty of the individual
Industrialization and Urbanization
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
-> guaranteeing prosperity
-> upholding individual liberty
economy works best when left alone by government
the
Belief
-> became questionable
-> minimal government // non-interference
-> advocating private property
-> unhampered market economy
-> rule of law
-> constitutional guarantees of freedom
-> inalienable individual rights
liberty AND responsibility
( the state/government )
-> an individual owes nothing to society
by Niklas, Juliana, Jason
Politics LK
Authoritarian and social relationships = consent/willing agreement

Government should be based on 'consent of the governed'

Individuals pursue their own self-interest
- Form social bodies + associations

Authority arises 'from below'
- Grounded in legitimacy
~ The ability of the individual ~
Wise judgements
- Best judge of own interest
Differences between humans should be resolved through debate and
NOT
war
SOURCES
Thank you for listening!
All websites last viewed on the 07.12.2014
- Idea present since Middle Ages
- 16th Century = First political appearance
- 'Glorious Revolution' (1688) foundational for the development of a modern liberal state
- Became a powerful force in the 'Enlightenment' (1650-1800)
- The 1776 Declaration of Independence of the U.S.A founded the republic on liberal principles
"all men are created equal and endowed (gifted) by their creator with certain unalienable rights, among these life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,"
- Revolutionaries in America and France used
liberal philosophy
to justify the
armed overthrow
of what they saw as tyrannical rule
- French Revolution (1789-1799)
- Overthrew the hereditary aristocracy
- The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
Citizen
broader "positive" view of freedom
State intervention
Freedom
personal development
"Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité"
flourishing of the individual
State
"Liberty leading the People" Eugene Delacroix
=abandon belief in
collective provision
Key economic responsibility
Collective Provision
to raise individuals
Modern Liberalism
- The philosophy of classic Liberalism emerged in the 19th Century in Europe and the U.S.
American
Conservatism
Social
Liberalism
- Grew out of a big disparity between the rich
and the poor
- Government incorporated a little more
- Beginning of 21st Century: liberal
democracies and its fundamental
characteristics have become very present
weak & vulnerable
JOHN LOCKE
(1632-1704)
English Philosopher and Physician
"Father of Classical Liberalism"
Life, Liberty and Property
https://www.boundless.com/political-science/textbooks/boundless-political-science-textbook/american-politics-1/political-ideology-23/liberalism-132-1891/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalism#Beginnings
http://science.jrank.org/pages/9957/Liberalism-Historical-Development-Liberal-Idea.html
http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/02/the-origin-of-liberalism/283780/2/
http://www.belmont.edu/lockesmith/liberalism_essay/index.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_liberalism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke
http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/08/john-rawls-theorist-of-modern-liberalism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_liberalism
http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/201210/r1016640_11492488.jpg
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/individualism
http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Classical_liberalism.html
http://mises.org/library/what-classical-liberalism
http://united4equality.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/diversity-hands.jpg
http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/
http://www.constitution.org/constitutionalism.htm
http://www.ncpa.org/pub/what-is-classical-liberalism
http://www.google.de/books?id=sq-1z8VMhDEC&lpg=PP1&dq=Modern+Political+Philosophy&pg=PA37&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Table of Contents
The historical development of Liberalism

Classical Liberalism

Modern Liberalism

Key Ideas
= protecting individuals from the "5 giants"
laissez-faire capitalism
Core value of liberalism
=priority over say, equality, justice or authority
Belief in the Individual
= individual freedom
= social enrichment
"willingness of people to allow others to think, speak and act in ways in which they disapprove"
Concern
Goal
=
=
www.1.bp.blogspot.com/-aqEG4XOI1ak/T2Bq-AhbZxI/AAAAAAAAAqE/pAu6DD0MKjs/s1600/Glorious+Revolution.jpg
fee.org/files/imgLib/20121115_johnlocke.jpg
www.loc.gov/exhibits/declara/images/geow.jpg
img.posterlounge.de/images/wbig/eugene-delacroix-die-freiheit-fuehrt-das-volk-122631.jpg
Pictures:
http://www.raleighcharterhs.org/images/embrance_diversity.jpeg.
http://united4equality.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/diversity-hands.jpg
http://thefederalist.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Constitution.png
http://susanohanian.org/nclb_cartoons/no+animal+left+behind.jpg
http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/201210/r1016640_11492488.jpg

"...someone who looks ahead and not behind, someone who welcomes new ideas without rigid reactions, someone who cares about the welfare of the people—their health, their housing, their schools, their jobs, their civil rights, and their civil liberties—someone who believes we can break through the stalemate and suspicions that grip us in our policies abroad, if that is what they mean by a 'Liberal', then I'm proud to say I'm a 'Liberal'".
John F. Kennedy:
No more: "Freedom to starve"
Economic & Social Issues
Full transcript