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Transcript of Liberalism
World has a rational structure, uncovered through:
- Exercise of human reason
- Human Enquiry
-> allows individuals to make their own moral decisions
-> Goal: to construct a society within which individuals can flourish and develop
-> maintaining the political and economic independence of the individual
„equality before the law“
„one person, one vote; one vote, one value“
Equality and Liberalism
"equality of opportunity"
-> Principle of meritocracy ~ "rule by the talented"
Bill of Rights, USA
-> establishment of a codified constitution
-> government regarded as a vital guarantee of order and stability in society
-> danger: government may become a tyranny against individual
needs to live for as long as one human remains alive
-> "let them do as they will"
-> a sub-category of capitalism
-> establishes order and security
-> limits the freedom and liberty of individuals
freedom of ...
= Social Darwinism
Liberty of the individual
Industrialization and Urbanization
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
-> guaranteeing prosperity
-> upholding individual liberty
economy works best when left alone by government
-> became questionable
-> minimal government // non-interference
-> advocating private property
-> unhampered market economy
-> rule of law
-> constitutional guarantees of freedom
-> inalienable individual rights
liberty AND responsibility
( the state/government )
-> an individual owes nothing to society
by Niklas, Juliana, Jason
Authoritarian and social relationships = consent/willing agreement
Government should be based on 'consent of the governed'
Individuals pursue their own self-interest
- Form social bodies + associations
Authority arises 'from below'
- Grounded in legitimacy
~ The ability of the individual ~
- Best judge of own interest
Differences between humans should be resolved through debate and
Thank you for listening!
All websites last viewed on the 07.12.2014
- Idea present since Middle Ages
- 16th Century = First political appearance
- 'Glorious Revolution' (1688) foundational for the development of a modern liberal state
- Became a powerful force in the 'Enlightenment' (1650-1800)
- The 1776 Declaration of Independence of the U.S.A founded the republic on liberal principles
"all men are created equal and endowed (gifted) by their creator with certain unalienable rights, among these life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,"
- Revolutionaries in America and France used
to justify the
of what they saw as tyrannical rule
- French Revolution (1789-1799)
- Overthrew the hereditary aristocracy
- The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
broader "positive" view of freedom
"Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité"
flourishing of the individual
"Liberty leading the People" Eugene Delacroix
=abandon belief in
Key economic responsibility
to raise individuals
- The philosophy of classic Liberalism emerged in the 19th Century in Europe and the U.S.
- Grew out of a big disparity between the rich
and the poor
- Government incorporated a little more
- Beginning of 21st Century: liberal
democracies and its fundamental
characteristics have become very present
weak & vulnerable
English Philosopher and Physician
"Father of Classical Liberalism"
Life, Liberty and Property
Table of Contents
The historical development of Liberalism
= protecting individuals from the "5 giants"
Core value of liberalism
=priority over say, equality, justice or authority
Belief in the Individual
= individual freedom
= social enrichment
"willingness of people to allow others to think, speak and act in ways in which they disapprove"
"...someone who looks ahead and not behind, someone who welcomes new ideas without rigid reactions, someone who cares about the welfare of the people—their health, their housing, their schools, their jobs, their civil rights, and their civil liberties—someone who believes we can break through the stalemate and suspicions that grip us in our policies abroad, if that is what they mean by a 'Liberal', then I'm proud to say I'm a 'Liberal'".
John F. Kennedy:
No more: "Freedom to starve"
Economic & Social Issues