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World History timeline
Transcript of World History timeline
Unit I: 8000 BCE-600CE
Prehistory to the Fall of the Classical Civilizations Prehistory: 12000BCE-8000BCE Hunter Gatherer Societies Nomadic Societies Small Populations
Low Subsistence Human Migration
Neolithic Revolution Agriculture :D
Population Increase Specialization Bronze and Iron Ages Spend all time gathering food. Constantly on the move following their food
No time to raise children Poor health-low populations
Could spend the whole searching for food without success Meager food gatherings not enough to support a population
Humans spread out all 0ver the globe
Ability to survive almost anywhere 30,000 years ago: cross land bridge from Siberia to Alaska Moved out of Africa 750,000 years ago Moved into Britain 250,000 years ago Moves into Australia 60,000 years ago I man can now make food for IO people Allowed for people to stay in one place permanent settlement No more constant moving - end of nomadic societies Ability to create weapons Makes hunting easier More food to support more people Healthier children live longer and produce more children No more questioning whether or not you would get food every day Higher subsistence levels With one man getting food for ten people, nine people have time to sit down and specialize Birth of many ideas of humanity: writing, law, government structures, artisans, crafters, smithers, miners, religious leaders, new tools New tools and weapons. Bronze better and easier to get than stone, iron tougher than bronze. People who specialized in weapon/tool making - people at home did not make their own tools 8000 BCE 4000-3000BCE Polytheism develops Very important to societies Please the gods. Most important was sun god Multiple gods 3500 BCE River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE Start of Civilization Began in the fertile crescent. Between Tigris/Euphrates Rivers - modern day Iraq Surplus food could be traded - contact made withother societies Social divisions created as new specialty classes form What exactly is civilization? Gender Equailty:both men and women spent time looking for food No social hierarchy : no one was specialized Cave art - religious purposes - ask for blessings or try to please the gods Domestication of animals - herding them in pens - steady supply of food, wool, bones, hides. Nomadic life abandoned gods of fertility become very inportant Gender roles change - men farm and women perform household jobs. Men become Dominant With development of specialty classes, a hierarchy evolves. People now had enough food to group together - urbanization Cities developed! Government - who will make the final decision? -Kings People could group together - bronze and iron provided security. With people grouped together, they needed a ruler - governments (kings) Arguably, the bronze and iron age led directly to the advent of civilization 5 things that make one up :
1:cities 2: government 3: religion 4: Social distinctions 5: Artistic expression A social hierarchy, basically Culture - art helps define who you are The rivers flooded violently and often - good for farming, bad for people Very pessimistic look on life No natural barriers - frequent invasions Rivers were however good facilitators of trade - some cities grew very wealthy Egypt, 3000 BCE Life revolved around the Nile River This river's annual flooding could be predicted - allowed for dev. of a calander Egypt was protected on all sides Deset, Nile, Oceans Perfect waterway for trade China, 2000 BCE Geographically isolated Limited contact w/ other societies Very fertile land w/ complex irrigation systems Ruled by a pharaoh - believed to be a god Egypt was very polytheistic Helped enforce ruler's decisions and keep order Optimistic way of life - geographical location, 'gods' mummification - afterlife extremely important Very centralized and powerful government - controlled all resources Composed of many city states never able to unite left them weak and vulnerable to invasion Sometimes able to unite for irrigation purposes Akkadins invaded, who fell to Babylonians, who then fell to Assyrians Warlike Hammurabi's Code - first written out code of laws Harsh but effective Ruled by local village leaders loyal to king Leaders made up the bureacracy of early China Aristocratic, could be removed at any time by the king Influenced Egyptian society as it traded w/ and contacted other societies Many of Egypt's citizens worked agriculture Women had more rights here than in most societies Still, some jobs would only be held by men Reinforced a patriarchal society with strict social divisions Law harshness based on social division Flooding, invasion, constant risk of death, slavery Rich business class mostly untouched by gov't Peasants farmed, and trade did exist with India and Egypt Family was the most important unit of life Men held all the power As villages grew in size, social distinctions became more evident absolute power gods were viewed as disinterested to humans Each city-state had its own set of gods, which it worshipped along with a a shared wide range of gods Monuments called ziggurats - houses of worship Invention - usually either diffused (gunpowder, gunmaking) or independently invented (cuneiform). Honor and respect given to elders. Dead ancestors were 'summoned' for advice Human Path in the Paleolithic Era : Austrolopithecenes Homo habilis Homo erectus Homo sapien Neanderthals - Shanidar cave @ Iraq Homo sapien sapien Cro magnon people - art in caves in Lascaux Line of People: Sumerians establish Mesopotamia Conquered by Sargon the Great - Akkadians - 2340 BCE Conquered by Babylonians - Hammurabi's Code - 1800 BCE Conquered by Hittites - 1500 BCE Conquered by Assyrians - Capital @ Ninevah - 1000 BCE Conquered by Chaldeans (neo-Babylonians) - Nebchadrezzar - 612 BCE Conquered by Persians - Cyrus the Great - 539 BCE - 600s CE A.K.A. Amorites Achaemenid Empire Organized into provinces called satrapies The Royal Road linked the empire's two capitals Susa and Persepolis lol Zoroastrianism - Religion brought by the Persians Prophet Zarathustra (628-551BCE) Cult of the Magi - 3 kings who visited Jesus Language - Aramaic (Jesus spoke it) White Nile (orig: Uganda) Blue Nile (orig: Ethiopia) Atbara River Sahara Mediterranean, Red Sea Desert allowed for much preservation of documents and bodies Line of Kings and dynasties: Menes - founded first dynasty - 300 BCE Archaic era (3100-2700 BCE) Narmer - also credited w/ first dynasty VS. Had a son - Horus Aha - who may have been the first king to rul over a united Egypt Old Kingdom (2700-2200 BCE) 3rd-6th dynasties Osiris - god on whom cult of the pharaoh is based Brother Seth sealed him in a coffin, and Osiris's wrife Isis made a mummy from Osiris. From the mummy, Isis made Horus - falcon god - who punished Seth Horus - god of heaven Osiris - god of underworld Djoser - ruler of the third dynasty Architect Imhotep dev. first pyramid @ Saqqarah Sneferu - ruler of the fourth dynasty His children/grandchildren - Khefu, Khefre, Menkaure - built pyramids @ Giza Great Pyramid at Giza Book of the Dead - rituals and religious views First Intermediate Period (2200-2050 BCE) - Four dynasties 2 @ Memphis and 2 @ Herakleopolis 11th developed in Thebes - ended up taking control of all others Had the god Amun - became Amun Re - very important god Middle Kingdom (2050-1652 BCE) - unity and stability Mentuhotep II - reunited upper/lower Egypt Second Intermediate Period (1567-1085 BCE) - no unity and no peace Weak rulers - The Hyksos est. a rival dynasty and took over Became the New Kingdom But then Ahmose I defeats Hyksos and reunited Egypt Kings: Thutmose I,II,III and daughter Hatshepsut Lived during Middle Kingdom Amenhotep IV (a.k.a. Akhenaten (honor of god Aten)) Tutankamun (born Tutankaten) - succeeded Akhenaten's successor Smenkaure Ramses II - defeats Hittites who have taken over the Babylonian empire Influx of immigrants - People of the Sea - probably fleeing from Trojan war Alexander the Great - brought Egypt into the Hellenistic world - it became part of Rome Late Period (600s BCE) Alexander the Great comes Classical Civilizations And their religions Classical India Aryan invaders - Brought a polytheistic religion that grew into Hinduism, learned iron tool making, and began to use agriculture Began to impose their rule on the native tribes - birth of the caste system The caste system made India
Provided unity for a politically fragmented area Had 4 main castes - each with its own job Because lower castes worked agriculture, India did not have slavery People readily accepted their caste - degree of moderation among dif. castes India was fragmented politically and separated by natural barriers - ruled with city-states Hinduism was the major religion - began w/ Aryan invaders Written down in the Vedas - epic novels - and the sacred texts 2 main dynasties - Mauryan and Gupta Mauryan - 326-184 BCE Gupta - 320-450CE India united under 1 central gov't w/ a bureacracy Most important ruler - Ashoka - Chandragupta's grandson Expanded the empire and made it more centralized Organized bureacracy Converted to Buddhism - propogated it throughout India and SE Asia Very important to the early spread of Buddhism When Ashoka died, the empire crumbled Never expanded as much as the Mauryan dynasty Rather than rule w/ a bureacracy, Guptas let regional princes rule Greatest period of political stability in India - golden age But empire crumbled when threatened with outside invasion (nomads) Split along the regional lines and was once again divided Would remain fragmented for 1500 years Indian government was a switch between unity and political fragmentation - a pattern developed. Alexander of Macedonia invaded in 327 BCE - created some city-states, but most importantly he linked India to other classical civs Also created a power vacuum that allowed Mauryans to gain power again. When India made contact w/ other civs. and guilds developed, they did not fit in with other castes Jati were made - all the little subdivisions of the castes Assumes a universal spirit exists that guides all life - called Brahman A piece of this spirit - atman - is in every living being Main goal is to be reunited with this univeral spirit - called moksha Works hand in hand with caste system, because based on your placement in the system you may be reincarnated or your atman may be reunited with the spirit Belief in Reincarnation - based on your life, you would be remade into a lower or higher class If you were born a slave, you were either a bad person or a good dog It gave high up people satisfaction and low down people hope for the future Karma - basically cause and effect - what you do in one life will affect you in the next Dharma - the duties of a person based on his or her caste The dharma of a warrior is to fight honorably You must fulfill your dharma to be remade into a higher caste Only Brahman - priests - could be reunited with the universal spirit Had many shapes - Shiva and Vishnu, for example Divided into city-states Around 2000 BCE Around 2000-1850 BCE - in a city-state known as Ur - Abraham lived Became patriarch of Jewish faith Judaism Established covenant between God and his people - Israelites Began in the Middle East, along w/ Zoroastrianism Little desire to attract converts - saw themselves as separate from everyone else 12 Tribles of Israel - 12 sons of Jacob (a.k.a. Israel) 1130-1020BCE - ruled by the judges Line of kings - Saul - 1020-1000 BCE - time of the Hittites - united 12 Tribes of Israel Son David - 1000-970 BCE - reunited 12 Tribes, made capital @ Jerusalem Holy to both Jews and Muslims - Temple of Solomon, Ark of the Covenant Site of Muhammad's Night Journey and Ascension into Heaven Son Solomon - 970-930 BCE - most prosperous period in Hebrew history - built Temple of Solomon After Solomon, Israel split - North half and South half Israel - capital Jerusalem Judah - capiptal Samaria Assyrians conquered Mesopotamia in 1000 BCE - conquered Israel in 722 BCE When neo-Babylonians took over Judah - Jewish exile Liberated when Persians took over Re-built destroyed Temple of Solomon Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa mosque 10 Covenants - Laws of how to live Pentateuch - Torah - holy text - 5 books of the Bible Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy 4 Sources: Priestly, Yahwistic, Elohist, Deuteronomistic Began with two twin cities - Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro - 2500-1900BCE - Between Indus and Ganges rivers Both had complex irrigation, running water, and sewage systems Harrapa - very peaceful, lots of leisure time The peace, respect for animals influenced Hinduism This was the River Valley Civ. Most likely conquered by force - killed many people from Mohenjo-Daro/Harrapa Written in Sanskrit Rig Veda - earliest Veda, 1028 hymns Upanishads - last of the Vedas to be written - 700s BCE Brahmin - priest Kshatriya - warrior Viasya - artisans, herders, farmers, merchants Sudra - slaves and servants Pariahs and untouchables - even lower than sudra Late Vedic/Brahmanic age - 1000-500 BCE Vedic Period - 1700-1000BCE (went til 500 BCE, but late period begins in 1000) Birth of the major Religions Hinduism - 2000BCE Judaism - c.1850 BCE Christianity - c.30CE, after the death of Jesus Buddhism - c.500BCE Daoism - c.550BCE Legalist - c.400BCE Confucianism - c.550BCE Classical India also saw the rise of Buddhism Prince Siddhartha Gautama - founder of Buddhism Saw suffering, death, and pain outside his palace gates Vowed to find why suffering exists in such quantities 4 Noble Truths #I - Suffering is everywhere, it permeates life #2 - All suffering is a result of desire (selfishness) and attachment to materials #3 - Detachment leads to nirvana, the state of being with the great spirit (similar to moksha, but more psychological than physical) #4 - One can attain nirvana through the Middle Path The Eightfold Path of Right Conduct Right Understanding Right Belief Right Speech (Do not lie or slander) Right Behavior (Do not steal, kill, or do something one will regret) Right Occupation (Do not choose a job that you consider bad) Right Effort (Always avoid evil and strive for good) Right Contemplation (of the Four Noble Truths) Right Concentration (Path to peace) Differences between Hinduism/Buddhism Buddhism rejected caste system Buddha forbade him being worshipped as a god Hinduism adapted to Buddhism and absorbed it Taught that Buddha was a reincarnation of Brahma Classical China Founded by Chandragupta Maurya Spread of Buddhism Spread mainly along the Silk Road to China Had success in China until 845 CE Emperor Wu-tsung order destruction of 4600 temples Two main Sects Mahayana Buddhism Theraveda Buddhism Treats Buddha as a diety Emphasized compassion Venerated saints as those who have achieved nirvana but remain to teach Known as bodhisattvas - key to spreading Buddhist faith Believe Buddhism is only for monks Regard Buddha as a teacher Believe salvation is only for individuals Believe salvation can be achieved as a group Tibetan Buddhism Leader - Dalai Llama Very peaceful - push for world peace Shang(1570-1045BCE) and Xia(Hsia)(c.2000-1570BCE) dynasties ruled during this time Founded on the Huanghe river valley Consisted of Three dynasties : Zhou, Qin, Han Chief crops were rice/millet Five emperors who ruled during this time show the greatest insight into Chinese culture #I:Fu Hsi - created I Ching - shows balance between Yin/Yang #2:Shan Nung - created the plow and marketplace #3:Huang Ti - developed fire - had 25 sons whom the Zhou traces heritage to #4:Ti Yao - concepts of emperor and virtues #5:Yu - founded Xia dynasty, taught Chinese how to manage the flooding of the Yellow River Zhou(c.1045-403BCE) Qin(221-202BCE) Han(202BCE-220CE) Introduced the Mandate of Heaven - ruler chosen by heaven Centered in the Wei River Valley - feudal society Confucius lived in the Zhou dynasty - based his moral/ethical system on Zhou rulers - single most important person in Chinese history Nobles lived in fortified estates and governed their own land Set a precedent for many, many future emperors The law of primogeniture - very important- all possessions of father went to eldest son Landed aristocracy in wealthy estates ruled over peasants while being ruled by the emperor Used as a way to remove the Shang dynasty from power - heaven had now chosen the Zhou Capital of the Zhou was Xian - beginning of the Silk Road Western Zhou Eastern Zhou Fell to invasion in 771 BCE Capital @ Loyang - held power here from 772-481BCE Center for religious rites Collapsed in 403 BCE 400-200BCE Era of Warring States Dynastic Cycle - one dynasty would fall and another would rise, claiming the mandate of heaven Confucianism became the main Chinese ethical code Confucianism K'ung Fu-tzu - born 551 BCE - translated by Jesuits into Confucius K'ung attracted followers, who wrote down his sayings - Analects Believed that the best virtue was to be found in the past Respect for the past would restore balance, harmony, and order to society and the individual Not a religion - more of a political system of ethics Insisted of virtue. Filial piety (respect of children for elders) is basis of all morality Family relationships formed the basis for a strong society One learns to be virtuous through watching others The emperor then must also behave virtuously Daoism Lao Zi - supposedly from 604-517BCE Focuses on nature - compassion, moderation, humility Argued against Confucianisn - saying laws create disorder by defining what is wrong Without laws, nothing is wrong and there is no crime Wu Wei - non action/non-interference with the natural path of life More spiritual that Confucianism Legalism Chaos can only be limited by a powerful state Emphasized military/agriculture, discouraged arts Harsh/strict code of laws needed to keep order Ended the Era of Warring States w/ Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi Centralized the government, created a bureacracy (very important) and crushed regional opposition Created roads,bridges,walls, standardized weights and writing. United China, but was very harsh and unpopular w/ peasants Created the Great Wall of China to keep out invaders(Huns) Used Legalism to unite his empire - was anti-Confucian Tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi - the 10000 terra cotta soldiers When Huangdi died, peasants revolted. Began with Han Wudi(a.k.a. Wu Ti) - r.141-87BCE Preserved centralist government and bureacracy but reinstated Confucian ideals Wudi officially adopted Confucianism and instated the civil service examination Expanded Chinese empire - fought the Huns to expand Sent a diplomat(Zhang Qian) to India to ask for an alliance The route he took helped create the Silk Road Supported the Silk Road and put many forts on it - also imposed high taxes Enforced peace, but was overturned by the Hun From 220-589CE, China entered its Dark Ages - Period of Six Dynasties 202BCE-9CE - Hans held power @ Ch'ang An This period referred to as western/former Han 25-221CE - Han power centered at Loyang This period referred to as Later Han Helped reinforce the bureacracy by emphasizing respect/virtues
Greece and Rome Classical From the Bronze Age to the fall of Rome Greece Began with Crete - est. 2800 BCE - ruled through city states Minoan culture - ruled by King Minos from Knossus (center of culture) Very artistic, had a large sea-trading empire(thalossocracy) Painted many famous frescoes Minoan culture ended around 1450 BCE, most likely along with a massive volcanic eruption The Mycenaeans may have then invaded, about 2000BCE Style of writing known as Linear A The Mycenaeans are know for their fighing in the Trojan War(may or may not have been real) Had a large fortress and citadel - famous Lion Gate The Dorians then invaded - Greek's Dark Ages (written works disappeared until the 700sBCE) After the Dark Ages, the Greeks began to expand - Peloponnesian Wars Rise of the Macedonians in 359 BCE w/ Philip of Macedon Greek's city-states could not hold their unity and fell after the wars The most famous being Athens and Sparta City states could unite when needed, but for the most part they were separate He was assassinated, and his son Alexander succeeded him Alexander the Great and Hellenistic Culture Tutored by Aristotle Began to conquer Persia - won countless battles Reached Egypt and founded Alexandria Continued to march to the Indus valley, but died in 323BCE before it was conquered Focused on politics, human rights, and military power Rome Originally ruled by a people known as Etruscans, Rome was founded in 509BCE along the Tiber River(Italy) when the last Etruscan king was thrown out Rome was founded as a republic, with balance between the consuls, senate, and people Romans began to expand - Punic Wars - Series of 3 wars Main governing body #1 - 264-241BCE Fought the Phoenicians - Destroyed outpost @ Carthage #2 - 218-201BCE Once again fought the Phoenicians - they tried to regain territory The Phoenicians originally made headway, but were then pushed back and lost everything and more #3 - 149-146BCE This is when Rome salted Carthage and prevented crops from growing With this, Rome became the Masters of the Mediterranean Rise of Julius Caesar and Imperial Rome 44BCE - proclaimed dictator for life after being elected for the fourth year in a row Assassinated March 15, 44BCE by 60+ conspirators led by Brutus and Cassius Caesar's nephew comes to power - Octavius Name changes the Augustus, and he becomes the first emperor of Rome - 27BCE Major military reforms - helped create longest period of peace/unity in Roman history After Agustus died, Tiberius is son took over - 14CE During Tiberius's reign, Jesus lived in Galilee The next series of rulers was Caligula, then his uncle Claudius,
then Nero, Vespasian, Hadrian, and Trajan During this time Christianity rose up under Jesus Christ Christianity - One of the Three major monotheistic Religions Nero heavily persecuted Christians as did Diocletian - blamed for Rome's problems Diocletian split the Roman empire, putting himself on the east throne and Maximian on the west Galerius succeeded Diocletian, but Constantine had to forcibly take the throne from Maximius Battle of Milvian Bridge - who is really in power? Both Maximian's son and a man named Licinius claimed to be western Rome's rulers, as did Constantine Constantine was victorious Edict of Milan - tolerance of Christians Rule of Constantine - first Christian emporer - helped spread Christianity Donatist and Arian heresies Donatist Arian Augustine of Hippo - rebuked their claims - sacraments come from God, not man Christ was not fully divine Do not allow those who had earlier forsaken their faith to rejoin as priests/bishops Sacraments not valid Council of Nicea - Niceen Creed Fall of Rome - plagues, invasions, peasant unrest, all culminated in the full splitting of Rome East/West Halves East fell to Germanic invaders, west continued in Constantinople (Byzantine empire) Fall of Han China - corrupt bureacracy, power-grabbing landlords, epidemics - peasant revolution(100CE) Yellow Turban movement - led by Daoists Toppled by the Hun invasion Nomads call the "White Huns" invasions toppled the Guptas - 450CE Because India was fragmented already, the Huns assimilated into the warrior class w/o disrupting the social hierarchy Buddhism declined, but Hinduism/caste system survived and grew However, India would not be united again until the rise of the Islamic Mughals B/c Rome was based on expansion, when it could no longer expand it fell When Rome fell, it fell for good. It did not keep its foundations like China/India Rome fell in 476 CE Eastern Rome entered the Dark ages Hindu - but tolerated other religions Buddhist WORLD HISTORY Unit II: 600 CE-1450CE
The Postclassical Era The Rise of Islam The prophet Muhammad - 570-632 CE Born in the town of Mecca, in the Quraishi clan of the Umayyads Orphaned at an early age - lived w/ his uncle Traveled in a caravan - exposed him to the outside, materialistic, polytheistic world c.600CE An annual trip to Mecca to pay homage to the gods became the basis of the hajj(pilgrimage) When he was 40, he had a vision of the angel Gabriel telling him the words of Allah This became the Qur'an (literally means recitation) The Five Pillars of Islam #1 - There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger Showed Islam's monotheism and respect for Allah #2 - Pray five times a day facing Mecca Also shows Muhammad is only human, not divine Mecca is believed to be the place Hagar and Ishmael traveled to after being expelled by Sarah from the house of Abraham #3 - Almsgiving to other Muslims #4 - Fasting for one month a year - Ramadan Commemorates Muhammad's trip to Mt. Hira where he heard the words of Allah #5 - Every Muslim must make the Hajj The Hajj must be made to Mecca #6? - The Jihad is often referred to as #6 In terms of the Qur'an, the jihad is to fight for the path of Allah, be it in self defense or an attempt to find converts - can use words, however, not just fighting Muslims are not to destroy property or harm civilians 2 forms of jihad - greater jihad, fought in the heart between good/evil - lesser jihad - outward, using words to convert or the sword to protect Went to Medina in 622 CE - began to gather followers The mosque in Medina is the 2nd holiest site in the Muslim world Began to raid Mecca, and Mecca surrendered peacefully in 630CE Muhammad died in 632CE Believed to have ascended to heaven from the Dome of the Rock(third holiest site in Islam) Succession Muhammad left no rules for succession - Abu Bakr(father-in-law) took over to govern the umma United Saudi Arabian bedouin tribes/expanded - Islam became a driving, uniting force Began to collect money and expand territory (Dar al-Islam, Land of Islam) Was not interested in converts at first, only booty won from conquest Booty had to be shared with all Muslims, so fewer converts = more wealth Head tax (jizya) est. for non believers Islam spread to N. Africa, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Western Europe Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, was assassinated in 661CE - Umayyad Caliphate established(661-750CE) Ruled from Damascus - est. a bureacracy Legal scholars, the ulama, interpretted the Qur'an into law In the Umayyad Dar al-Islam, Arab citizens were first class Only paid tax as required by the Qur'an Conquered peoples paid many other taxes Expansion continued into N. Africa w/ conquering of the Berbers Fatimid Caliphate est. here - 975CE In 725CE, expansion pushed into the Iberian Peninsula from Africa (stopped there) After about 730CE, expansion halts - stopped at Spain by Charles Martel - Battle of Tours(Poitiers) Split between the Muslim faith - Sunni vs. Shi'ites 656CE - Murder of third caliph Uthman - who is in charge now? Bedouins declared Ali caliph, but the Umayyads reject this and declare Mu'awiya caliph Sunni Umayyad and Shi'ite bedouins Umayyad Islam - stressed Qur'anic values and improved the rights of women Abandonment of a frugal lifestyle led to takeover by the Abbasid Abbasid Islam - capital built @ Baghdad, 762CE - 1258CE Caliphs grew distant from people, turned to viziers to admin. daily affairs Efforts were now taken to gain converts - acceptance of mawali(non-Arab Muslims) into umma Seljuk Turks(Sunni Muslims living in Turkey) united and conquered Baghdad in 1055CE Mongols conquered Abbasids through Ghengis Khan's grandson Hulego - Baghdad sacked in 1258CE Tamerlane also sacked Baghdad in 1369CE and took power Brutal Mongol conquerer who massacred thousands of people Buyids conquered Baghdad in 945 CE - caliphs became puppets Plagued the Islamic community until it fell After Seljuk Turks took Baghdad, they attacked Byzantium Crusades were called partly because of this The Spread of Islam The Muslims originally expanded into Persia - Sasanians easily conquered By the time the Sasanians realized the Muslims were a real threat, it was too late Capital taken and in 651 CE the last ruler was assassinated The Byzantine empire was stronger, but Byzantine Arabs defected to the Muslim armies and Constantinople was captured and fell in 1453CE Muslims taxed everyone - first class Muslim Arabs only paid what the Qur'an required - people of the book - dhimi - were taxed also but not too heavily - seen as partially enlightened Christians/Jews - non-Arab non-Muslims and those who were not in the dhimi were taxed the most - the head tax jizya Trade routes were restored along with help from the Tang and Sui dynasties in China, which allowed Islam to begin tp spread to Southeast Asia Islam began its spread into Southeast Asia in India during the rule of Uthman Pirate ships attacked Muslim trading vessels - Muhammad ibn Qassim invaded the Indian Sind The Sind area would remain Islam's foothold in India until Mahmud Ghazni launched a full invasion When Ghazni rose to power in 997CE, he invaded India and conquered land as far as the Indian Ocean to the southeast His successors established the Delhi sultanate Introduction of Sufi mystics - spread Islam to the far corners of the region Sufis created a blend of indigenous religions and Islam to please the masses India at first expected Islam to morph into Indian culture, which is what happened with Buddhism However, Arabs did not become absorbed into the culture and Islam retained its identity Islam did not attract many followers either - only low castes Once the Buddhist empire of Shrivijaya in Oceania fell, Sufis could travel through trading ports to spread Islam In Africa, Berbers helped spread Islam along the trans-Saharan trade route As the trade route grew, the gold trade grew - slaves needed to work the mines led to an increase in the slave trade When the Muslims entered the system, they took slaves of their own - development of a new slave trade The Arabs gained many new inventions, ideas, and crops that diffused along the trade routes Helped push them to the top of the world power list Africa Under the Umayyads, Islam spread to Mesopotamia, Palestine, Persia, North Africa, and part of Western Europe Islam became deeply rooted in these areas through the ulama and qadis Uluma - scholars who interpreted Islamic law and applied it Qadis - judges who settled disputes among the Muslims The Muslims became entrenched in trading systems as Islam spread further Cotton - created a textile industry that greatly improved the status of Muslim merchants Sub-Saharan - Bantu Berbers - North of the Sahara The Sudan - green area south of the Sahara Agriculture began here with the Hyksos - Egypt Lived a transhumant lifestyle - moved with the seasons Societies were very diverse Stateless societies - organized around kinship - no central authority States - rules exercised control through a hierarchy of officials Secret societies - cut through lineage divisions to unite men and women and limit authority Settled disputes and maintained stability They were not united, but did share common elements in Bantu language Iron-making was introduced by and spread through Bantu migrations Moved along rivers - Congo to central Savannah and Zambezi to south The Kushites were the heirs to the Hyksos They lived further south and conquered Nubia When the Assyrians arrived, the Kushites were forced to move further south to Meroe In Axum(Ethiopia) King Ezana converted the whole population to Christianity - 250CE Islam spread along North Africa from 640-700CE West Africa - Maghrib Ghana - 900-1100CE Militant Soninke people Grew to become a major component in the gold trade Development of Muslim Kingdoms Islamic purity movement by Almoravids helped penetrate sub-Saharan Africa but led to Ghana's downfall Almoravids took over gold trade and Ghana in 1076CE Mali - est. early 1200s Sundiata - king, triumphed over Soninke people and broke away from Ghana Formed by the Mandike(Malinke) people Also depended on the gold trade - merchants known as juula Sahel Sudanic States Known as the "Lion Prince" - exploits celebrated in oral tradition by the griots - professional historians Sundiata died about 1260CE, but his successors continued to expand Most famous - Mansa Musa (c.1312-1337) - brought Muslim attention to Mali w/ his Hajj to Mecca Muslim attention brought wealth to cities such as Jenne and Timbuktu Songhay - capital @ Gao, 1010CE 1370s - independance declared. Under Sunni Ali, the Songhay was forged Greatly expanded the borders of the Songhay Muslims were shocked that men and women intermingled Muslims from Morocco conquered the Songhay in the 1500s Other Western Kingdoms - Benin Est. by the Yoruba people Did not speak a Bantu language Kings called "Obas" ruled with absolute authority, but land was divided and lesser officials ruled it Kingdoms of Central and South Africa Congo Great Zimbabwe Est. in the thirteenth Century, but fell to Portuguese when it converted to Christianity People were farmers and kingship was hereditary Extensive architecture and gold trade - 1400-1500CE Internal divisions and rebellion split the kingdom apart Christian holdouts - Nubia and Ethiopia Located in North-East Africa - held out and resisted Muslim influence Ruled under a king who took the title Mwene Mutapa Meanwhile, in the Americas... 3 major empires developed from 600-1450CE Aztec(Mexica) Maya Inca Around 50,000-20,000 years ago people migrated across the Bering Strait to the Americas The Olmecs rose up about 1500BCE @ San Lorenzo, Mexico A small group of rulers emerged, and the Olmecs became sedentary farmers
They grew maize and were known for massive architecture San Lorenzo fell and La Venta rose up - 900BCE When La Venta fell, Tres Zapotes became the prominent city - 300BCE The Olmecs were the foundation for later American societies 150-900CE was Mesoamerica's classic period in which many societies arose Around 300BCE, Teotihuacan rose up, and flourished until about 700/800CE Very successful traders - obsidian weapons and jewelry They had a statified social hierarchy and were very religious Pyramids of the Sun and Moon - massive structures Many images and shrines to the god Quetzalcoatl The Mayans were the heirs to Olmec culture They dominated land from southern Mexico to Central America Had as many as 14 million inhabitants with major cities such as Tikal Agricultural - used milpas to farm - burning forests to plant in the ash Traded agricultural products as well as jewelry, textiles, and cotton Traded with Teotihuacan and other civilizations using rivers for transport From key cities such as Palenque, named after the ruler Pacal, the Mayans began to expand and influence other cultures As the Mayans began to decline around 800-1000CE, centers began to become abandoned Chichen Itza was one of the last centers to become abandoned, because it became a Toltec center after the fall of the Mayans In centers such as El Caracol, the Mayans studied astronomy and developed the 365 day calander Mayan cities were very religious, but also very scientific In Chichen Itza, the largest structure is called the Nunnery Complex and is was used by the priestesses in rituals Territory may have become too large to govern, or natural disasters may have contributed Bloody wars fought to expand may have also contributed to some agricultural problems The Toltecs quickly took over the Mayas under the leadership of Toliptzin(980-1000CE) Their capital was at Tula, and the empire collapsed in 1200CE They brough their culture to the Yucatan area in Mexico The Aztecs rose to power when they settled on the islands of Lake Texcoco and est. Tenochtitlan - 1428CE Worshipped the god Huitzilopochtili - expanded empire through warfare Stratified society with a supreme emperor on top on others forced to pay tribute Very polytheistic - 128 gods. Big on human sacrifice -prisoners of war often used as sacrificial victims Made use of chinampas - floating gardens in the lake - to grow food Traded with other societies - development of merchant class - pochteca City-state of Tenochtitlan and surrounding area controlled by 7 calpulli - kin groups Warriors were recreuited through these calpulli Labor length determined by king - lack of pack animals req. human labor Under various emperors such as Montezuma II, sacrifice flourished and elites lived in grand splendor Over time the egalitarian society was transformed into a hierarchy Warrior nobles - tecuhtli - , priests, and provincial generals were the highest, besides the emperor Very militaristic - in order to rise up in ranks, one had to kill or capture 4 enemies Women could serve as priestesses, but were mostly confined to the house to raise children and make food Lack of technology meant women spent house grinding corn for flour Males born into a family that already had other male children were forced to become females - in dress, talk, and marriage These transvestites were called berdaches This could also happen to females - thus creating 2 additional transvestite, homosexual genders Civilization first rose large scale in Caral, northern Peru - as far back as 2600BCE During the reign of Pachacuti Inca - 1438-1471 - the Inca became militaristic and expanded The Inca's capital at Cuzco was controlled by 10 ayllu (similar to calpulli) His son and grandson Topac Yupanqui and Huayna Capac continued expansion and consolidated the empire Local rulers - curacas - allowed to retain rule if they paid tribute to the emperor Members of the ayllu were expected to owe allegiance to the curaca and also the emperor Labor wasn't demanded, it was expected - people worked in shifts, known as mita No merchant class - unneeded, as the empire provided everything it needed for itself Unified language and religion helped unite their people Use of the quipu helped regulate government due to lack of writing system Other Indians Mississippian Anasazi 900-1350CE - known for famous temple mounds Centers of civilization - Cahokia, Moundville, Ocmulgee 3 major groups - Anasazi, Hohokam, and Mogollon Anasazi were cliffdwellers considered descendants of the Mogollon The Hopi were considered descendants of the Anasazi 900-100CE - Pueblo II Period - Anasazi expand 1100-1300CE - Pueblo III Period - Anasazi build their famous cliff dwellings 1300-1598CE - Pueblo IV Period - Anasazi expand further and build much larger dwellings The earliest site of Anasazi cliff dwellings - Chaco Canyon Known for turquoise jewelry Mesa Verde - structures were built on top of the plateau The structures were later moved into the sides of the cliffs to become Sun Point Pueblo Climate change, drought, loss of natural resources all may have contributed to abandonment of dwellings Centers of Power did still exist - in Chola(south) rose in the 800s and Delhi(north) rose in the 1200s Shrivijaya existed in Sri Lanka, but was defeated by Chola in 1025CE In Delhi, the Indian trade routes continued to be used and the textile industry grew China and SouthEast Asia After the Era of Division - 220-589CE - the Sui dynasty rose Founded by Yang Jian(Wendi) - formed alliances with nomadic elite to secure power Built granaries to reduce recurrent famines and began to expand Son Sui Yangdi rose to power after assassinating Jian - rebuilt exam system and pushed back nomads Jian and Yangdi forced large projects - Grand Canal - 1400 miles long, linked Yellow/Yangtze rivers Became a crucial trade route that helped south Chinese rice farmers become rich Yangdi was assassinated in 618 by his general Li Yuan, who est. the Tang dynasty - 623CE Revived Confucianism, but also patronized Buddhism and Daoism China began to expan farther and farther into Asia - pushed nomads even further back Civil service exam/bureacracy re-established, and rise of Confucian scholar-gentry Sui capital @ Changan was kept as the capital of the Tang Those who passed literature exams were called jinsha Although merit/ability counted, birth/family still helped advance bureaucrats The Tang had a big rise in Buddhism and dev. of many new strains Pure land strain - afterlife/heavenly strain attracted peasants in times of war Chen/Zen strains - materialism/beauty - attracted elites Empress Wu - 690-705 - tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion Rise of Buddhism brought art and culture to China - sculptures Lungmen Buddhist caves - grand examples of new art of sculpture Anti-Buddhist backlash turned to open persecution under Emperor Wuzong(841-847) Buddhism continued to spread along the Silk Road as it greatly expanded under the Tang Emperor Xuanzong comes to power - fell in love with Yang Guifei Yang's family gets involved w/ politics and revolts erupt The nomadic Kirhgiz people began to push in as weak rulers rose up 907CE - last Tang ruler forced to resign and the Song was est. - 960-1279CE Mongol tribes were defeated, except for Khitan people to the north Became known as the Liao - began to force the Song to pay tribute Southern Song capital est. at Hangzhou - at the time potentially the grandest city in the world When the Jurchens overthrew the Liao and est. the Jin, they invaded the Song dynasty Reform attempts by Wang Anshi failed after his death and neo-Confucians took over Neo-Confucians were unable to fend off the Jurchens, and the Song dynasty fled to the south Rise of the Southern Song dynasty - 1127-1279CE The Mongols eventually topled the Song dynasty and est. the Yuan - Culture in the Sui/Tang Technology and Poetry increased greatly - abacus, explosive powder, moveable type Li Bo was an important poet during this time Women became greatly subordinated at this time with footbinding Bones were broken and the foot was remolded into the shape of a flower Constant source of pain - severly limited movement and confined women to the house Art increased with symbolic paintings and sculptures Mongol Madness - 1100s-1400s Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka/Malaysia Japan - 3 Eras - Taika, Nara, Heian Sinification of Chinese Culture Taika - 645-710CE 646CE- Taika reforms enacted by Prince Shotuku Taishi to try and make Japan into China Nara - 710-784CE Fujiwara family comes to power after the death of Taishi Borrowing from China peaks in this era, and even the peasants are affected by Buddhism borrowed from China During this time, power shiefts allowed small leaders to consolidate power, leading to Japan's feudal age A power struggle developed between the government and the aristocrats/Buddhist monks Buddhists and aristocrats began to build up power and start revolts aimed at destroying the Taika reforms 760s - Buddhist monks attempt to overthrow the emperor and the capital shifts to Heian (Kyoto) in 794CE Heian - 794-857 No monks were allowed in Heian - as a result the aristocrats took all their power Monks got around this, however, by building their towns around the city and soon had their power bak Court life in this era becomes ultracivilized as borrowing from China continues Poetry became hugely important in court life - best ex. Tale of Genji, by Lady Murasaki Japan's Feudal Age - 1000CE onward As courts grew further muddled with Chinese culture, the rise of provincial warriors, bushi and samurai,pushed Japan into feudalism Bushi were aristocratic leaders of estates and samurai composed their armies The emergence of warrior elite crushed any chance of a free peasantry, so peasants turned to Buddhism and art for solace As war raged on between families struggling for power from the bureaucracy, bushi and their armies were hired for protection Feudalism developed as Japan became wracked with civil war and Chinese influence declined 2 families especially fought for power - Taira and Minamoto As war raged on from 1180-1190CE, the Minamoto gradually took over and established the bakufu Kamakura Shogunate The bakufu system had a militant Shogun ruler who had real power and an emperor who ruled in name Samurai valued loyalty and honor above all else and were willing to commit ritual suicide - seppuku - rather than die to their enemies Although the Minamoto family claimed rule from Kyoto, the Hojo family became the real dominant force behind Japanese government As the politcal system became further complicated, daimyos (replaced bushi) began to gain local power and build up large estates Around 1333CE the Ashikaga took over the Kamakura and establed their shogun in Kyoto As Japan continued to struggle onward, peasants turned to Zen Buddhism, art, and tea for solace As guilds developed and the economy grew based on tea, Japan gradually began to pull itself together Korea - Koguryo, Silla, Paekcha Chinese influence may haev reached Korea as early as 109BCE, when the kingdom of Choson was conquered by Han China In the 660sCE, 3 kingdoms were fighting for control Tang China formed an alliance with the Silla kingdom to destory the other 2 The Silla - 668-800s - and Koryo - 918 - 1392 - kingdoms began to borrow Chinese culture Korea attempted to also become a mini-China China forced Korea to pay tribute and send emissaries to China with the tribute when an invasion by the Tang failed The emissaries in turn brought back Chinese inventions and ideas which helped model Korea into China Unlike in Japan, where everyone became involved in Chinese culture, in Korea it was reserved for the elite The elite even created new classes to prevent peasants from gaining anything When Ming China overthrew its Mongol overlords, they moved to Japan and est. the Yi dynasty Buddhism became the bridge from Korea to China over which the two cultures mixed Korean Buddhism was adapted into Chinese Buddhism to help further the diffusion Like Japan, Korea willingly assimilated Chinese culture into its own. Unlike Japan, Korea retained a distinct identity and did not fully erase its culture Attempts to creat a bureaucracy failed as aristocrats knew it would limit their power and prevented it Sinification reached its peak at this time Vietnam - A different story Vietnam did not want to be conquered by China and desperately tried to retain its own culture Vietnam was conquered by Han China and dragged into the bureaucratic structure Influence was overwhelming and threatened to obliterate Vietnamese culture Although some selective sinification happened, most was severely resisted The peasant class refused to be assimilated into China, and revolts broke out The most famous revolt was led by the Trung sisters of Vietnam Vietnam finally won its independence and remained independant until the 1800s Civil strife between north and south Vietnam (Nguyen and Trinh) allowed France to invade Buddhism entered Vietnam and remained a factor for many years Vietnam and China did still selectively sinicize the other's culture The Chinese adopted quick growing Vietnamese rice which led to a population boom Thailand, Cambodia(Vietnam), and Malaysia Burma(Myanmar) arose in the 700s among Pagan rulers - Theraveda Buddhists In Cambodia/Vietnam, the Khmer kingdom arose in the 800s and was the most powerful kingdom in SE Asia until the 1500s The Angkor kingdom preceded the Khmer and had magnificent Hindu cities - Angkor Thom/templ of Angkor Wat The Shrivijaya kingdom developed on the island of Sumatra, in Indonesia The Shrivijayas had a monopoly on spices and controlled trade through the Strait of Malacca Mahayana Buddhism was the preferred form of religion here After the Shrivijaya fell, the Majapahit empire on Java rose to power The Mongols truly began to rise up under Kabul and Chinggis(Ghenghis) Khan Before Chinggis, Mongols lived in kinship tribes and were nomadic and warriorlike Ponies, goats, and sheep were essential to their way of life Women could exercise some control, but most was dominated by men Chinggis Khan, Kabul's great-grandson, was born in the 1170s as Temujin In 1206 at a kuriltai(meeting of all clans) Chinggis was elected the khagan(supreme ruler) Because the Mongols were very egalitarian and warlike, they launched their attack on a completely unsuspecting world Organized into units called tumens(10,000 men/tumen) the Mongol war machine marched on other nomadic tribes By his election in 1206, Chinggis had already conquered 1-2 million other nomads and was expanding into China Chinggis conquered the Xi Xia kingdom in NW China and moved into Qin China (controlled at the time by the Manchu Jerchins) Conquered peoples often had to pay a hefty tribute or were slaughtered as a warning to other villages not to resist Chinggis then moved onto the Islamic world and conquered the Turkic kingdom of Muhammad Shah II Life Under Chinggis Khan(1170s-1227) Chinggis established a capital at Karakorum on the Asian steppes Althought Chinggis refused to live in other cities, he was very willing to adopt many the arts and learning of his conquered peoples Chinggis was very tolerant of religions, and trade routes flourished under the Mongol peace Many people lived in peace, contrary to the violent images often associated with Mongols When Chinggis died in 1227, another kuriltai was held in which Ogedei, Chinggis's son, was elected khagan The New Mongol Imperium Under Ogedei, Batu(grandson) and Chinggis's other sons, the Mongols continued to rule Russia and Europe became the new goals of the Mongols, specifically the Golden Horde Batu entered Russia in 1236 and 1240 and crushed resistance armies Tribute systems were set up and Russian princes were forced to pay tribute to the Mongols Here, Russia's bondage began. While Russia was protected from being conquered by other nations, it was also cut off from key Western transformations Only in Russia was Mongol rule seen as truly a bad experience Just as the Mongols turned their eye to Europe, Ogedei died and all Mongols were called back to Asia Europe was spared the full fury of the Mongols Conquest in North Africa was given to Hulego, Chinggis's grandson and the ruler of the Ilkhan portion of the mongol empire The mongols were stopped here in Egypt by the Baibars(Mamluks) while Hulego was away in Central Asia Kubilai Khan, elected khagan in 1260, was given the task of capturing Song China From 1235-1279, Mongol armies fought. In 1270, he took control of China and formed the Yuan dynasty The Mongol Imperium of Kublai Kubilai was very tolerant of the Chinese and other peoples/religions, but he was determined to keep Mongol culture separate from China He forbid Chinese from learning the Mongol language, but welcomed Chinese culture unto his Mongol people from his capital at Tatu A sort of one-way flow of culture Muslims and women both flourished under the Mongol imperium, and women had more rights here than in any other society Ex: Kubilai's wife Chabi often controlled politics as much as he did Kubilai insisted on tolerance and did his best to help the merchants and artisans, who had never enjoyed much status He also did his best to limit the scholar-gentry and Confucian traditions When the Mongols started to lose fights and secret societies developed (Ex: White Lotus Society) Zhu Yuanxhang(Ju Yuanzhang) finally toppled the Yuan and established the Ming dynasty Under the Mongols, China enjoyed peace and has since not been fragmented as it was after the Han The Brief Aftershock of Timur Timur founded his dynasty on Chinggis's ruins with a capital at Samarkland He rose to power in 1369 He was known for brutal massacres and the murder of tens of thousands of people. He died in 1405 Timur's violence is part of the reason why Mongols are looked upon so poorly Migrations of Unit II - the Spread of Civilization Arabs Vikings Turks Mongols Bantu The Arabs spread out from the Arabian peninsula around the 7th century CE They invaded, settled, and eventually ruled North Africa, southern Europe, and the Middle East Islam became a cultural link to the people under the Islamic caliphate even after the political system of the Arabs declines As Islam spread, it mixed with other native cultures, religions, and customs The Vikings originated in Scandanavia and swept into Europe during the 8th and 9th centuries The Vikings looted and destroyed villages and churches, and sometimes intermarried with natives, creating new ethnicities Because Viking attacks were so frequent and violent, people became convinced that protection was vital, so they organized into a network of lords and vassals - feudalism A very important consequence of the Viking invasions was the creation of feudalism in Europe The Turks were originally Indo-Europeans who migrated to the middle East The Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine empire, which sparked the Crusades It can be suggested that the Seljuk Turks were indirectly responsible for Europe's new interest in trade with other parts of the world The Ottoman Turks rose and captured Constantinople and many other parts of Europe The Turks also invaded India and established the Delhi sultanate while introducing India to Islam In history the Mongols are depicted as savages, when in reality the Mongols established one of the greatest peaces in history Pax Mongolica united once hostile people from the Middle East (Il-Khan) to China (Yuan dynasty) The peace allowed for order and international contact to be established Trade routes floursihed and new foods, inventions, and ideas travelled freely to different civilizations with nomadic intermediaries The Bantu people of Africa began to move south of the Sahara when the desert began to spread Their language became a basis for many other languages, and their migration was a major source of Africanity (common characteristics of the whole continent) The Dark Ages of Western Europe When Rome fell in 476CE to Germanic invaders, all of western Europe was plunged into the Dark Ages The Middle Ages(Dark Ages) span over 1000 years in history, from roughyl 476CE-1453CE Western Europe had already been falling as Rome began to decline and became ravaged by plagues and misfortune The fall of Rome marks the official entrance to the Middle Ages, although to most people in western Europe the fall of Rome made no difference to them Eastern Europe, on the other hand, did not enter a period of feudalism Western Europe became wracked with raiding from Germanic tribes and Vikings Protection became essential, and people banded together in groups for safety Over time, this system became known as feudalism Intellectual life stagnated, which is why this period if often called the Dark Ages Western Europe became a backwards society and truly regressed on itself Churches became the main sources of intellectual thought as monks copied down scripture Christianity became the main religion of western Europe during this time, as it had become the main religion of Rome during its fall Monasticism grew and flourished during this time, and Christianity was spread throughout Europe by travelling monks and nuns Eremitical monasticism originated in Egypt and was influenced heavily by Jesus Christ and his lifestyle, focusing on the individual Cenobitic monasticism was created by St. Basil of Caesarea and focused more on community and love Different groups of Monks were created and spread throughout the regions Benedict of Nursia founded the Benedictine monks at Monte Casino in 529CE amidst the collapse of Rome His monks took vows of obedience, stability, and conversion to monastic life and were cenobitic The Celtic monks were founded by a man known as Columbanus, and Irish monk Both of these groups helped convert Europe and spread Christianity to its corners Medieval Western European Kingdoms Anglo-Saxon England When Rome withdrew from Britain during its collapse, King Arthur(Ambrosius Aurelianus) supposedly emerged as a hero to establish Anglo-Saxon Britain The British Isles were shared by the Saxons in Britain and the Picts in Scotland Christianity reached the British Isles when Pope Gregory the Great sent an expedition to convert to "barbarians" living there Monks and Nuns established monastaries, and women held a surprising amount of power in this era Among the established monastaries, a man known as the Venerable Bede lived - created the Anno Domini (A.D.) system of dating He also wrote the massive "History of the English Church and Peoples" - 8th century Alfred the Great was the greatest Anglo-Saxon ruler - fended off Vikings and translated many texts into vernacular languages Because people were cut off from each other, many languages developed - French, German, Italian, etc. The Franks The Franks were a Germanic tribe that was based on kinship, and blood feuds were common The Wergeld was established to end feuds by having sides pay a fine for damages done to the other side Powerful chieftains, such as Clovis, gained loyalty and power from the Frankish nobles Clovis's conversion to Christianity in 500CE and establishment of the Merovingian dynasty further helped his power The Franish conversion to Christianity further helped the state evolve Another Franish ruler, Charles Martel, stopped the Muslim advance at Poitiers in 732CE This victory prevented Europe from being conquered by the Muslims Martel's son Pepin the Short was elected king of the Franks through the Pope when he came to the aid of Rome under its seige by the Lombards In return, Pepin took a strip of land in Italy and donated it to the Pope - the Donation of Pepin, as the land was called, would later be known as the Papal states and play a huge role in the Renaissance Pepin's son Charlemagne would later form the Carolingian dynasty The Carolingians Charlemagne(Charles the Great) was the greatest king of the Carolingians Charlemagne's monks helped preserve many Greek and Roman texts - Charlemagne's era is known as the Carolingian Renaissance In 778CE Charlemagne attempted to expand his empire and attacked the Basque Christians in north Spain, but he lost He also led several campaigns against the pagan Saxons to convert them - in 785CE after years of fighting the Saxon leader Widukind converted and surrendered Charlemagne also attacked the Lombards in Italyin 773CE and gained the support of the Pope in 799CE In 800CE, Charlemagne was crowned emperor of Rome in the West - began the tradition of solidifying the church and state together Once Charlemagne died, the Treaty of Verdun(843CE) split his land between his sons, and the empire dissolved The Church Feudalism and Feudal Societies The Vikings Different Viking groups began to ravage Europe during this time - towns were sacked, people were killed, and buildings destroyed From the 700s to the 800s, the Vikings pillaged all around Europe, travelling by river Eventually the Vikings settled in Iceland and Greenland, but they had left their mark A system of landholding and obligations began in Europe, known as feudalism This complex social, political, and economical system characterized Europe until the French Revolution in 1789 Feudalism placed all the power in the hands of a few people, but that power was fragmented and armed forces were used to obtain and keep power Feudal societies developed out of the need for a king and other powerful figures, hence all the power went to only a few people Land was the primary form of wealth - the wealthy owned lots of land and had lots of serfs to work it The wealthy owned land but needed defense - hired vassals, or knights, to protect the land Hiring knights was expensive - they needed to be clothed and armored and their horses cared for A feudal society made use of fief holding and investiture to hold land and defend it Hence, knights were given plots of land (known as fiefs) as payment. The knight was "invested" (investiture) in the land and owed the landlord homage Marriage became a tool to advance up the social ladder - if you married a rich girl, you enetered into her rich family To keep vassals in check, landlords made the vassals seek permission to do anything However, if a knight had pledged service to 2 or 3 different lords and those lords all demanded his service, the knight was stuck To prevent this, liege homage was created, which allowed the knight to serve one lord above all others should the above situation occur Manorialism - the way that these estates worked and functioned together in a feudal society. Feudalism was mainly political and military Land was divided in an estate into the serfs' land, and the Lord's demesne(personal tract) The system of dividing land was called the open field system, which eventually developed into the 3-field system Inventions such as the moldboard allowed for better cultivation and more food, but famines were still recurrent and peasants' diets consisted of mainly bread and vegetables Both free peasants(not bound to land) and serfs(bound for life) worked the lord's land in return for their own land They had to seek the lord's permission to do anything, similar to the vassals Economies then became very local. Most people were cut off from each other and had no desire to leave their estate Women often managed the households here, as men were often off in campaigns The Church became the shining light in an age of darkness This age was also known as the age of faith The main center of the Postclassical West was around France, Italy, and the Low Countries around that area The Church became the unifying force in the West, and its power was bolstered by Germanic tribes such as the Franks When Charlemagne came to the Pope's aid, he was crowned the Holy Roman Emperor - fusing together the Church and state A Church hierarchy developed of a pope on top with cardinals below him. Bishops were under that, and priests lived in local villages and towns, supervised by the bishops The Church spread its influence through wandering ministries - priests, monks The Franciscans and the Dominicans were two such orders that were known for this The establishment of monasteries helped secure the power of the Church in many areas Monasteries also provided refuge and were seen as safe havens, were the place to go to if one needed to contact a higher Church offical, and were the only centers of intellectual thought to be found Monks were often the only people who could read or write, and the Church became the only source of intellectual ideas and thoughts This may have further helped secure the Church's power as now no one could prove that the Church may have been falsifying some facts The Central Middle Ages Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire from Rome to Constantinople an created the Byzantine empire In doing this, the Byzantine empire avoided the collapse of the Roman empire and survived for another thousand years Constantine claimed the divine right to rule and thus was both the religious leader and secular lord - this is called caesaropapism Emperor Justinian(6th century) reinforced caesaropapism and continued to build a Christian empire
while expanding the Byzantine empire The Hagia Sohpia - domed church that is still today a mosque Accomplishments: Expansion of the Byzantine empire to try and reclaim the west - only to be lost by later leaders Development of the Justinian code - systemized the laws - biggest accomplishment Justinian's wife Theodora was also very Christian and had a large impact on his decisions The Justinian code would become the basis of law in Western Europe and in the United States Although he never solved the religious disputes of the region, he did promote a Christian empire Justinian was not able to revive the Roman empire, and after his death the Byzantine empire fell to invaders - Turks - and Constantinople fell in 1453CE His general Belisarius defeated the Vandals in North Africa and the Ostrogoths in Italy to further expand the empire In the 630s, Muslim peoples threatened Byzantine borders and religion and began to take territory The Iconoclastic controversy broke out because Muslims forbade the use of images in religious art and were winning battles The theory began to form that images in art had cause Byzantine losses, and the emperor attempteed to abolish all images in religious art The Iconoclastic controversy weakened the relationship between the East and West church and caused distrust In 957CE, a Russian queen visited Constantinople and converted to Christianity When she returned to Rome, however, the peasants were rooted in paganism Her vicious son Vladimir adopted Christianity (mainly for political reasons) and forced it upon his people The Slavs of Eastern Europe suffered from repeated invasions of nomadic groups and were split into 3 groups The western Slavs(Polish and Bohemian) were converted to Roman Catholocism by the 9th century The southern Slavs(Moravians) were converted by Cyris and Methodius, Byzantine missionaries, to Orthodox Christianity Of the eastern Slavs, the Serbs and Bulgarians converted to Orthodox Christianity but the Croats became Roman Catholic The Central Middle Ages were a period of revitalization and economic change Although invasions had destroyed coastal Europe and the Carolingian empire had disintegrated, an agricultural revolution in the 11th century dramatically increased production rates The artisan class emerged from peasants who moved to the city to escape feudalism, and they banded together in guilds Guilds helped revive trade and regulate artisan activities Trading cities and leagues developed, such as the Hanseatic League, that served as bases These changes involved into a commercial revolution and the rise of a money economy - essentially created capitalism The status of peasants and women were boosted as they became involved in business activities As for Charlemagne's empire, the western part of his land became France Frankish nobles elected Hugh Capet to rule, and the Capetians mainly ruled around Paris When William of Normandy, a vassal of Capet, conquered England in the battle of Hastings, feudalism was established in England His successors, notably Henry II, took over the area around Paris and it became known as the Angevin Kingdom Henry's son Richard I "Lionheart" and his brother John lost the territories to the French king Philip II Augustus (1180-1223CE) It was during this war ^ that the Magna Carta(1215) was drawn up to limit the power of the English monarch John Philip IV "The Fair" (1285-1314CE) fought with Pope Boniface VIII for control of the French church and with England in the Hundred Years' War The eastern part of his land became Germany The German monarch Otto I was crowned emperor of Rome in 962CE by a pope he picked himself - Sylvester II Follow precedent, other German rulers picked their own bishops/archbishops and exerted control over the Church, which led to the Investiture Conflict Pope Gregory VII issued a decree in 1075 against investiture, and the crisis was resolved in 1122 with the Concordat or Worms This stated that monarchs could elect bishops and clergy but not give them spiritual power - only the Church could do that A similar crisis occured with Thomas Becket and Henry II of England, which resulted in Thomas Becket's assassination by Henry II During this time, scholasticism developed. Leaders included Thomas Aquinas and Peter Abelard Unit III Colonization of the New World -Last Muslim stronghold of Granada was conquered in 1492
-Features of Iberian societies
-heavily urban; many peasants lived in small centers
-system gave rights to work the local population to any Spaniard who conquered Moorish lands
-Spain had a complex bureaucracy
King worked closely with Church, pope was often asked to intervene in disputes
-Treaty of Tordesillas
divided land claims in the New World between Spain and Portugal
-1492, Columbus voyages to the Americas
-started the colony of Hispaniola
-encomienda system started in the colonies
-Main goal of the Spainards was to get Gold
-Cortes conquered the Aztecs with 600 men
-Aztec capital was declared Mexico City and th new land New Spain
The Main reasons the Europeans were able to conquer were their weapons and the dieases they brought
In Peru, the mita system was established, conquered people were sent as labourers to work on state projects, mostly silver mines
haciendas, estates and land that produced crops for the local consumers
When sugar is introduced into the colonies, Slavery begins also
Government of the colonies
The colonies had become intergrated into the Spainish bureaucracy
A viceroy was appointed to be the kings "over seer" in the colonies, these viceroys had some power, and their actions were looked over by the courts back in spain
The social systems were just like that of Spain
Spanish became the language of the government and business
A hierarchical class system emerged, Peninsulares (Europeans born in Spain) had the highest status, and Creoles (Europeans born in the Americas) were second. In the middle were mestizos (blend of European and Amerindian) and mulattoes (blend of European and African), and at the bottom were full blood natives and Africans. 1450 CE Developements in Europe - Trade was increased and made better by the crusades:
as a result wealthy cities poped up everywhere
-The Renaissance, or "rebirth" was an attempt to revive the values of the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, Greece and Rome.
-An important philosophical influence restored from ancient civilizations was humanism, which focused on the capabilities of humans, not of God. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION -The revival of classical civilizations inluences led to developements in math and science too
-Church apporved of some theroies like those of Piolemy, in which everything revolved around the earth.
-Later in 1543, Nicholas Copernicus' work was published. He found out that every thing revolved around the sun, but he did not get in trouble because he was already dead
-Galileo was the scientist who got in trouble over the=is theroy because he stregthened it and publshed these ideas in 1610
-He was arrested and put on trial
-Another scientist of this era was Sir Isaac Newton(1642-1727)
-Newton did not challenge the church, and he made great discoveries regarding gravity and light. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION - 1450 to 1750 the church lost significant power in almost every way.
-early 16th century, the church's religious authority was seriously weakened by the Protestant Reformation, a movement led by a German priest, Martin Luther, he believed that the church was seriously flawed. Emhized faith adn a relationship with God
-1519, Luther openly challenged the religious authority of the church, he wrote and displayed the 95 Theses, which listed 95 problems with church practices.
- With the help of the printing press his ideas spread all over europe
-John Calvin started another branch of Protestantism called Calvinism
-King Henry VIII of England separated from the church when the Pope refused to grant him an annulment from his first wife Printing Press -Johannes Gutenberg
-His construction of a workable printing press around 1450, was the reason Martin luther's Theses spread across Europe
-Without it the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, the Protestant Reformation, and ultimately the Maritime Revolution would not have been possible. Japan 1450-1750 -Nobunaga, one of the first daimyos to make extensive use of firearms, he rose to power above the other contesting lords. But killed in 1582
-His general Toyotomo continued his struggle, and then became master of Japan in 1590
-died in 1598
-Tokugawa Ieyasu won out in the ensuing contest for succession. In 1603 the emperor appointed him shogun. He ruled from Edo (Tokyo) directly controlled central Honshu and placed the remaining daimyos under his authority. European Challenge -European traders and missionaries had begun to increase since 1543
-They exchanged firearms clocks,ect. for Japanese silver copper and other product
The fire arms that were traded revolutionized warfare in Japan
-Christian missionaries claimed thousands of converts, and were soon feared by the Japapese because of their power
-Christian missionaries were ordered to leave; persecution of Christians were underway during the mid-1590s. Christianity was officially banned in 1614
-From 1616 merchants were confined to a few cities; from 1630 Japanese ships could not sail overseas. By the 1640s only Dutch and Chinese ships visited Japan to trade The Renaissance The cause of the Reaissance
(from online doc)
-1) The Fall of Constantinople
The scribes of Constantinople preserved Greek ideas when Europe was in the Dark Ages. They kept the scrolls of Aristotle, Socrates, and other Classical writers in libraries. In 1453 Constantinople fell due to invasions from the Muslims. The scholars fled to Western Europe with the Greek scrolls. Most of these scrolls went to Italy. About this same time one of the most important inventions was made.
2) The invention of the printing press
In 1440 the printing press was invented which allowed these old scrolls be printed. The printing press was a powerful tool. It allowed ideas to be shared and spread rapidly. The Greek and Roman writings that came in from Constantinople were printed and spread across Europe.
3) The rise of a Middle Class in Europe
What allowed the spread of these Classical ideas was the rise of the Middle Class. These people were different from the medieval way of thinking. They begin to focus more on self-improvement, the world, and education. They educated their children and had them read the Classics. Rather than emphasis the medieval idea that man is terrible and sinful, they emphasized the idea that man was created in God’s image. This was something mankind could be proud of. The middle class became the market for classical books. The Renaissance cannot be understood without them.
-Humanism, the idea that man is capable of anything and God doesnt always intervine or give it to us
-Medieval art was flat and dark. Renaissance painters used mathematic and rational rules of perspective to create the illusion of depth.
-Renaissance writers were writing for the Middle Class, they wrote in common language.
-Petrarch, the "Father of Humanism." His ideas were far ahead of his time. He was the first to write in the humanists way.
-When humanism of the Renaissance spread to northern Europe it combined with Christianity to form Christian humanism, it was Christian humanism that led Martin Luther call into question the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and to go to the original source (the Bible) to see where he thought the Church went wrong.
-In the early 1500s most all Catholics recognized the need to reform the Church, church leaders were corrupt and making $ off of the people Martin Luther -The Reformation began when Martin Luther protested the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church. He wrote his 95 Theses to protest them. People who followed Luther were called
-Luther had several different beliefs than the catholic church teached(from online doc):
1) he believed the Bible was the Christian’s only source of authority
2) he believed a person was saved by faith, not by the sacraments
3) he believed that each Christian was his own priest and could pray directly to God Counter reformation & reformation
-Council of Trent: called in order to deal with reformation and reform itself
1) they decided that the Bible AND the Church were the believer’s authority
2) they decided that faith AND works were needed for salvation
3) they reformed the church and ended a great deal of corruption
4) they decided that indulgences could no longer be sold (only given)
-Catholic church also:
1) created the inquisition to stop heresy
2) created the Index, a list of forbidden books
3) created the Jesuits, a group of priest to take the Catholic religion to the New World
(in order to stop the spread of Protestantism)
Effects of the Renaissance
-voayges over seas and exploration increased
-The bourgeoisie, middle class, was rising in influence and wealth while the power of aristocracies was challenged
-¡COLONIZATION! Rise of capitalism an economic system with a division between labor and ownership the people whose labor creates wealth are not the investors or owners of the raw materials and machinery (means of production). Therefore, the wealth created by labor goes not to the worker but to the capitalist (investor-owner).
Early Capitalism - Putting-out system:
capitalists delivered raw materials to households who then manufactured them into a finished product. The capitalists paid them for their labor and picked up the final product
-This was also known as
-Money and way of life increased and got better in the countryside
- With the rise of proto-industrialization, the nuclear family became more economically independent, and socially dependent.
Commercialization and inflation
-Individuals who invested gained at the expense of others who simply possessed property(from doc), this challenged the aristocracy
-Manufacturing and urbanization increased
-New social classes and tensions emerged Russia 1450-1750 -At the beginning of this period Russia was under the power of the mongols
-After they were free of mongol control it was a period of territorial expansion and reform, they had realy push themselves to catch up with the rest of Europe.
- The russians continued to use the fuedal system that had been set up by the mongols
-The first significant leader in this process was Ivan III, also known as Ivan the Great, Ivan III increased the power of the central Russian government and drew more land under his control
-Ivan the III's son Ivan IV, aka Ivan the terrible, was a brutal leader
-Ivan's best contribution to the developement of Russia was how he dealt with the Boyars, or Russian aristocrats.
-He was very suspicions of the Russian boyars he had many of them killed, stripped of power and land, and relocated
-This allowed the Tsars to become the true autocrats Peter the Great -Growing up with sea-faring and exploring, he helped reform russia
(From online doc)
1) Military reform - He built the army by offering better pay and also drafted peasants for service as professional soldiers. He also created a navy by importing western engineers and craftsmen to build ships and shipyards, and other experts to teach naval tactics to recruits. Of course, his Gunpowder Empire developed better weapons and military skills.
2) Building the infrastructure - The army was useless without roads and communications, so Peter organized peasants to work on roads and do other service for the government.
3) Expansion of territory - The navy was useless without warm water ports, and Peter gained Russian territory along the Baltic Sea by defeating the powerful Swedish military. He tried to capture access to the Black Sea, but he was soundly defeated by the Ottomans who controlled the area.
4) Reorganization of the bureaucracy - In order to pay for his improvements, the government had to have the ability to effectively tax its citizens. The bureaucracy had been controlled by the boyars, but Peter replaced them with merit based employees by creating the Table of Ranks, eventually doing away with titles of nobility.
5) Relocation of the capital - Peter moved his court from Moscow to a new location on the Baltic Sea, his "Window on the West" that he called St. Petersburg. The city was built from scratch out of a swampy area, where it had a great harbor for the navy. Its architecture was European, of course. The move was intended to symbolically and literally break the hold that old Russian religious and cultural traditions had on government.