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History: Medicine through time

Revision for the 'Medicine through time' exam
by

Will Fielder

on 3 December 2012

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Transcript of History: Medicine through time

History: medicine through time Prehistoric medicine Trapanning Perehistoric people used to drill through people's skulls in order to let out bad spirits Studies show that patients of trapanning survived the treatment but died a few years later, most likely because of infection. We know this because of the bone growth over the hole in their skulls they also put chams on people who were ill to help preotect them against bad spirits People also used to make casts out of dried mud to help the broken bone Because of prehistoric peoples
lack of knowledge of medicine a lot of people died of the simplest of illnesses Egyptian Medicine the Papyrus Ebers Paper the invention of paper meant that things could be written down and stored and medicine recipies and cures didn't have to spoken through generations This was the most important book of its time as it contained cures for illness. All doctors would reffer to this book for guidence Its information was believe to be correct on everything it contained ever so far as if a doctor followed it to the letter if the patient died then it would be the doctors fault The three blockages They developed the theory of channels that carried air, blood and water. They got this idea from the river Nile being if the Nile got blocked the crops became unwell and they applied the same principle to the body, being if a person was unwell they would have to be umblocked either by bleeding, defacating or vomitting. The Dual Approach Prehistoric person suffering
from illness the illness obvious Is this cause of Natural,
common sense,
Visible Problem 1,
broken arm Encase in clay
and dry in the
sun yes no Problem 2, cut Greek Hippocraties Cover with clay or
animal fat and bind
with bark Superntural/Religious
spiritual cause (not visible) Problem 1, Evil spirit
in the body Spirit must be driven out of
the body using charms,
trapanning used as a way
for spirit to leave the body Problem 2, Good spirit has
left the body Spirit must be returned to the
body spirit must be found on the
end of a pointing stick Science/technology cause and cure The egyptions used to put ammulets on pregnent women to help protect her and the unborn women from evil spirits anatomy Mummification meant that knew knew where the organs were in the body when they removed it. However they couldn't disect them for religious reasons this hindered the leaning of medicine because they couldn't find out how the organs worked Hippocratic Oath Every doctor had to agree to the Hippocratic Oath as the doctors make a promise not to harm or kill their patients. This is still used today but causing problems as patients who cannot be healed or cured want their doctor to inject them with morphine to end their suffering, the doctors don't want to go against their Hippocratic Oath. Records of patients These records meant that the patients progress could be analized, This also meeant that if a certain cure or method of cure wasn't working then new improved methods and medicine could be made. the 4 humours Hippoctes came up with the idea of the 4 humours, yellow bile (vomit), phelm, blood, and black bile (doesn't exist). He thought that the reason you got ill was because one of these was unbalenced so the doctors had to rebalence them Roman Galen Took Hippocrates and moved on with them, he made the idea of opposites so if you had a cold you would eat/dink something hot and vise versa He disected a pig to show how the nervous system worked. He did this in public. He also walked down streets with dead people on the sides of the roads to see how they decayed Public Health Roman public health was as good as it is now becauise the romans had flowing water and aqauducts, working sewers. The roman empire spanned nearly the whole of western europe and what happened in one place happened everywhere else. Dark Ages/ Islamic Medicine All knowledge was lost in the east and all ideas of Galen and Hippocrates are takenb west and the knowledge only comes back when thecrusades start Avensenna, an islamic doctor who specialised in anatomy, could recite the Qu'ran at the age of 10, he moved on with the ideas of Galen and Hippocrates. Rhazes was the other main doctor from the history of islamic medicine, he also improved the ideas of Galen and Hippocrates. Medieval medicine People called rakers would be assigned to rake up all the poo on London streets, the main problem with this is that there were not enough rakers to clean all of the streets in London with the vast amount of people living in London. The goverment put fines on people who weed or pooed on the streets and people who dumped pheases on the streets but this didn't really help. Toilets were also made on the bridge of the river Thames so all that waste would go into the water supply, no wonder they got ill!
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