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Transcript of Science
SCIENCE Chemistry What I've Learned Physics Climate Change Deforestation Biology Bibliography http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/photosyn.htm Chemical Reactions in Photosynthesis What is it? The process of converting light energy into sugar Takes place in plants Chemical Reaction
6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) C6H12O6 + 602 + 6H20 Reactants: carbon dioxide, water, and light energy Products: glucose, oxygen, and water Creates the oxygen that we breathe Double displacement reaction Light Reaction https://www.boundless.com/biology/photosynthesis/photosynthesis-food-from-light/chemical-reactions-phoyosynthesis/ Reaction that requires light in order to take place Occurs during the first stage of photosynthesis Light Independent Reaction Converts carbon dioxide into glucose Takes the light reactions and preforms further chemical processes Three phases: Carbon Fixation, Reduction Reactions, and and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration. Takes place in the chloroplasts How does this connect to other areas of science? Biology The chemical reactions that take place in photosynthesis are essential to plants and allow them to grow Photosynthesis reactions take place in the palisade tissue cells of a plant's leafs Physics The sun's energy is an essential reactant in photosynthesis, and allows the reaction to take place Without it the reaction could not happen Climate Change Photosynthesis is essential to the environment as it creates the oxygen that we breathe Deforestation is decreasing photosynthesis and taking oxygen from the environment Plant Organs Plant Systems System: A group of tissues and organs that work together to preform specific functions All the organs in the plant work together to form the root and shoot systems Root System: The roots of the plant
Takes minerals and nutrients out of the soil Shoot System: The stem, leaves, and flowers of a plant
Supports the plant, does photosynthesis, and transports nutrients and sugars The Leaf A wide surface area on which photosynthesis takes place The Upper Leaf:
Cuticle- Waxy surface that prevents water from evaporating
Epidermal Cells- Protect the leaf
Palisade Tissue Cells- Preform photosynthesis
The Middle Leaf:
Vascular Bundles- Veins that run through the leaf into the stem, made of xylem and phloem
The Lower Leaf:
Epidermal Cells- Protect the leaf
Guard Cells- Change shape to allow pores to open and close
Stomata- Let CO2 in and O2 and H20 out The Stem Made up of Vascular Bundles 1. Supports the plant 2. Transports water, nutrients, and sugar throughout the plant The Roots Anchor the plant in the ground, take water and minerals from the soil, and act as a storage area Taproot: One, large, thick root that firmly anchors the plant in the ground, and reaches far under water for water Fibrous Roots: Many little roots spread out horizontally near the surface; stabilizes soil and prevents erosion The Flower Where reproduction happens Male parts produce pollen, which makes sperm
Female parts produce eggs Pollen travels from the male to female parts to become fertilized This is assisted by wind, insects, birds, and bats How does this connect to other areas of science? Physics Sunlight is essential energy source for plants as it gives them the nutrients they need to grow and allows them to preform photosynthesis Climate Change Trees are homes for countless numbers of species When we cut them down we are ruining ecosystems and destroying biodiversity Tree's roots anchor the soil in the ground and prevent erosion and landslides Cutting down tree's destroys their roots; leaving the soil more susceptible to erosion, which makes it hard for anything else to grow there Sunlight How is Light Produced? Atoms absorb energy and become excited They jump up to a higher energy level In order to get back to their normal energy level the electrons get rid of their extra energy To do this they release photons, which are tiny packets of light Light from the Sun Pressure in the sun's core fuses hydrogen atoms together to create helium Nuclear Reaction This excites the atoms, and they release their energy as light Optical Phenomena from
Sunlight Sunlight and the sun's energy create many optical phenomena in nature such as: Rainbows
Mirages Double Rainbow Sundogs Mirage How does this connect to other areas of science? Climate Change How Light
Travels Light travels in electromagnetic waves, which are invisible Light can travel through empty spaces, like a vacuum, and through some materials Particles don't need to vibrate to pass energy along What is it? http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-overview/ The large scale destruction of forests Through human activities Contributes to global warming Each year areas of forest the size of the country of Panama are cut down - 75,517 km² http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama What causes it? Forests are cut down for a variety of reasons:
Provide more space for agriculture
Logging operations ie. pulp and paper
Clearing roads through forests
To make room for growing urban sprawl Natural occurrences such as forest fires can also lead to deforestation Agriculture Logging Urban Sprawl How does this contribute to Climate Change? Forests are damaged by:
Air pollution Trees are carbon dioxide sinks By cutting them down we are taking less carbon dioxide out of the air, and adding more greenhouse gases to the in the atmosphere Trees also return water vapor to the atmosphere and are part of the water cycle Forests are important ecosystems and are home to countless species Cutting down trees destroys habitats and can lead to the extinction of different species What can we do to stop Deforestation? Decreasing our use of paper products will decrease the amount of trees that need to be cut down Recycle papers and buy products made from recycled paper Logging companies need to stop clear cutting forests so trees are left to grow back, and plant trees to replace the ones they cut down http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/project/projects_in_depth/conservation_program2/ Governments and environmental organizations such as the WWF are implementing programs to prevent deforestation Forest canopies block some of the sunlight from the forest floor Cutting down trees destroys the canopy and increases the amount of sunlight that reaches the forest floor This dries out the soil and makes it hard for other plants to grow in it The forest canopy also holds in heat at night and blocks some of the sun's rays during the day , and without it temperatures in the forest are more extreme- very hot in the day and very cold at night These temperature changes makes the forest inhabitable for many animals and plants How do these all relate? Chemistry, biology, physics, and climate change are all connected together. Sunlight provides energy for plants to preform photosynthesis. This allows plants to grow and preform their functions. Trees in turn protect the forest ecosystems from extreme temperatures and keep moisture in the soil; making it possible for plants to grow. Deforestation, the cutting down of trees, is related to this also as cutting down trees destroys habitats for animals and makes it hard for other plants to grow there. Trees also take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere so by cutting them down we are adding more carbon dioxide to our atmosphere. My wonderful science notes 1. Climate change is real issue that is effecting our planet. Human actions have greatly affected our climate and are contributing to global warming. If we continue on the path we are on then there will be drastic consequences for the environment in the near future that will redefine life as we know it. However, we can take action to preserve the environment and reverse the negative impacts that we have made upon it. By doing this we can protect the environment for the future. 2. All living things are made of cells, which are the basic units of life. Groups of similar cells make up tissues, which preform specialized functions within the organism. An example tissues are dermal tissues on a plant. Groups of tissues make up organs which also preform specialized functions. An example of an organ is a plant's leaf. Groups of tissues and organs work together to form systems that preform specific functions within an organism. The shoot system in a plant is an example of a system. All living things contain cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Leaf- Plant Organ Plant Shoot System 3. Light can come from the sun, incandescence, or various different types of luminescence. All light travels in a straight line until it hits another medium, where it is either reflected or refracted. Light traveling from a slower to a faster medium bends towards the normal, and light traveling from fast to slow bends away from the normal. Plane, concave, and convex mirrors, and diverging and converging lenses all reflect and refract light in different ways when the light hits them. Incandescence Convex Mirror