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Transcript of Child Psychology
unconscious mind and childhood experiences. Infancy Prenatal Development Brain Development zygote: fertilized egg. Less than half survive the first 2 weeks embryo: the zygote's inner cells after conception, cells begin multiplying called a fetus after 9 weeks major organs have developed in the first 6 months fetus can hear mother's voice the development that occurs
prior to a baby being born placenta carries nutrients everything a mother does affects her baby to the baby Fetal Alcohol Syndrome teratogens are transferred newborn babies are born with automatic responses for survival birth to about 3 years of age have natural reflexes very fond of their mothers voice and scent turn head in direction of voices habituation: decrease in responding with repeated stimulation http://www.parentsexpert.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/popular-baby-names-in-europe.jpg in womb, brain forms nerve cells at a rate of 1/4 million per minute you have the most brain cells you will ever have on the day you're born from ages 3-6, the frontal lobe has a major growth spurt association areas are the last to develop maturation: the orderly sequence of biological growth processes experience influences how we mature Motor Development Memory and Cognition the brain enables physical coordination muscles and nervous system mature to allow performance of more complicated skills learning to walk is not imitation differences in timing genes play a major role in development identical twins will mature very similarly http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Society/Pix/pictures/2011/6/13/1307974896535/Baby-starting-to-walk-007.jpg generally do not remember earlier than age 3 infantile amnesia refers to remembering certain parts of significant childhood events by age 4 or 5, memories begin to be stored the hippocampus and frontal lobes are still maturing cognition: all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, communicating, and remembering showed that babies are capable of learning with an accidental home experiment tied her baby's foot to the mobile, he kicked to make it move repeated experiment with other children all babies made the association between seeing the mobile, and kicking put an emphasis on how a child's mind grows with interaction with a social environment parents and others provide the steps for children to learn teaching from an adult is only effective when a child is developmentally ready to learn new skills bred monkeys for intellectual studies held monkeys away from their mothers the monkeys became emotionally attached to pieces of cheesecloth used the cheesecloth as means of comfort when feeling distressed disproved the theory that attachment is based on being provided nourishment Cognitive Development Piaget's Theory observed mothers with infants babies were put in situations that caused them slights distress when a mother responded quickly and attentively, the baby grew up with secure attachments when a mother was unresponsive or inconsistent, the baby grew up with insecure attachments Erik Erikson developed the theory that securely attached children go through life with basic trust basic trust: a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy he believed that a sense of trust is due to parenting Child Psychology deals with the physical, mental, social and emotional aspects of the developing child. 1. Nature vs. Nurture 2. Continuity vs. Stages 3. Stability vs. Change Is development affected more by genetic inheritance or life experience? Is development a continuous process, or do we develop in a series of stages Do our early personality traits continue throughout life, or do we transform as we get older noticed similarities in the incorrect answers children gave during intelligence tests "Children are active thinkers and are constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world" children's minds develop in stages other's saw childish mistakes, but Piaget saw working intelligence created one of the first social development theories believed that a child's relationship with caregivers early in life plays a role in development and influences other relationships throughout life 4 stages: oral, anal, phallic and latency each stage comes with desires that must be fulfilled if a stage is not completed successfully, a person will dwell on it later in life 4 Stages Sensorimotor Stage: birth to 2 yrs. everything happens through senses and actions- looking, mouthing, hearing, grasping, touching Preoperational Stage: 2-7 lack awareness that objects still exist even when you can't see them represent things with words and images, don't use logic pretend play egocentrism: have difficulty seeing someone else's point of view Concrete Operational: 7-11 think logically about concrete events grasp analogies can do arithemetic equations conservationism: properties like mass, volume, and number stay the same despite a change in form Formal Operational: 12-adult abstract reasoning and logic moral reasoning His theory has been adopted but as a more continuous process. Most stages are the same prenatal development zygote developmental psychology embryo placenta teratogans fetal alcohol syndrome habituation maturation cognition schema assimilation accommodation egocentrism conservation stranger anxiety attachment imprinting basic trust stranger anxiety schema: concept or framework that organizes and interprets information assimilation: interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas accommodation: adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information Piaget believed that children construct these understandings while they interact with the world Social Development: at 8 months: stranger anxiety is developed attachment: emotional tie to caregiver imprinting: animals form attachments during a critical period in life Deprivation of Attachment http://www.bestwayguides.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Baby-Stranger-Anxiety.jpg children who receive no love or attention will grow up withdrawn or shy they will have trouble creating strong relationships as they get older Child Abuse an experiment with monkeys proved the theory that abused children become abusers 30% of children who are abused, will abuse their children this trauma leaves a lasting impression suffer nightmares, depression, and aggression sexually abused children have a greater risk of health problems, psychological disorders, and substance abuse children removed from home at age 2 or older have trouble creating new attachments younger children tend to adapt better Self-Concept The Power of Peers Parenting Styles while the major achievement socially during infancy is attachment, the major social achievement during childhood is a positive sense of self self-concept: an understanding and assessment of who you are self-esteem: how you feel about who you are children who were adopted show no signs of lower self esteem later in life 1. Authoritarian: impose rules and expect obedience 2. Permissive: submit to their child's desires. make few demands, use little punishment 3. Authoritative: both demanding and responsive. set rules, enforce them, but also explain them. encourage open discussion children will eat a food they dislike if placed with children who like it children will speak in the same accent used by their peers, even if their parents speak differently in adolescence, teens who smoke generally have friends who modeled the behavior