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Ellory Vincent

on 27 January 2015

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Transcript of Depression

Who does depression affect?
Types of depression
Diagnosing/Stigma around Depression
Family members often recognize a difference in the patient before anybody else does.
Often the irritability of the depressed person causes more conflicts throughout the household .
Depression sometimes divides families (some members don’t understand the illness and want to run away from it)
Some take opposite approach and do everything in their power to fix it.
depression has a huge impact on families however
families have a huge impact on depression
Parents with depression have a big affect on their children.
Often children don’t want to go to school because their scared to leave their depressed parent alone
They feel as though there is no structure in their life since their parents moods are ever-changing.
Sometimes they blame themselves, often go overboard doing anything to make their parent happy.
Work & Friends
Often the depressed person distances themselves from their friends.
the depressed person does not usually care about their performance, they have lost most interest and satisfaction.
Minor Depression
Patient does not show all the symptoms of major depression.
Usually occurs over a period of two weeks or more.
Great risk of developing major depression if not treated soon.
Major depressive Disorder
Symptoms majorly affect a persons day to day lives.
Occurs in episodes which can last for several months at a time.
The depressed individual often has thoughts about death.
The worst cases unfortunately end in suicide.
Subtypes of Major Depression
Seasonal effective disorder
-Same symptoms of major depressive disorder.
-Only occurs in certain seasons (often winter/autumn)
Postpartum Depression
-Having a baby is challenging emotionally & physically
-Women with PD have feelings of guilt, anxiety and inadequacy.
-A woman with PD may associate her child with negativity
-This affects the important bonding a mother has with her newborn
Bipolar Depression
(Manic Depression)

Talking to the patient is the most important tool for diagnosing depression
Lab test are not as an effective diagnosing tool as talking.
The doctor should get to know the patients:
-Mood habits
So why is diagnosing so hard?
Depressed people often don't want to talk about what their feeling and dont want to seek help.

Stigma around Mental Health
Often People don't seek treatment because of the shame/ embarrassment associated with depression.
People are often afraid of being seen as vulnerable. (especially men)
How can society fix this?
-Making mental health education part of the curriculum.
-Media needs to humanize mental health
women are twice as likely as men to get depression.
-1 in 4 women will experience depression.
-1in10 people in Canada have depression
-Depression is most prevalent in people ages 45-64
-1 in 10women experience symptoms of depression after having a baby.
-India currently has the most depressed people, upwards of 36% of the population is depressed
Some children feel resentful against their parents; they blame them for their depression
Dysthymic disorder
-Milder Type of depression
-Sufferers tend to think its just part of who they are
-People often go through their whole life without being diagnosed
-75% of people with dysthemia also suffer from other conditions such as alcoholism and drug addictions.
Endogenous Depression
- A state of depression for which there is no apparent precipitating cause
-Comes from internal causes (stress, worry, anxiety etc.)
-Often genetics play a big role in endogenous depression.
-This mood disorder also includes periods of mania.
-Often goes from one high to another (very happy to very sad)
-Many people perceive the manic episodes and then going back to normal as the persons personality/character. this often leads to this disorder being misdiagnosed or goes undiagnosed altogether.
The End Result
Making the Situation Better
There is no real prevention for those suffering from depression, however they can get better with time and the right techniques and treatment (for them)
Good health habits (i.e daily exercise, healthy diet, relaxation)

Causes of Depression
Depression may be caused by one or more factors. Such as biological, psychological, and environmental.
Biological Factors
Caused by an imbalance of natural occurring substances called neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord.
Serotonin and dopamine are two neurotransmitters that appear to be involved in the symptoms of depression.
Psychological Factors
People are affected by certain events very differently.
Each of their thoughts might affect how they experience life.
This may also determine if they become depressed.
Environmental Factors
Depression can be triggered by stressful events, such as:
The death of a loved one, a move, divorce, financial difficulties or a job loss.
Social isolation.
Relationship conflicts.
Stressful workplace.
Health issues.
Other Causes
Family & Friends
Other causes can be genetic factors and drug and alcohol abuse.
Genetic Factors
Genes approx. explain 30 to 40 percent of depression.
The brain may have a harder time producing serotonin and dopamine in the right amount if there is a family history of depression.
Drug and Alcohol Abuse
in Depression
Abusing drugs and alcohol may lead to depression.
All drugs and alcohol are brain depressants.
They deplete your brain of serotonin and dopamine.
Alcohol abuse almost doubles the risk of getting depression.
The Brain
Low chemical imbalance in the brain.
Research says that people who struggle with depression have a lower serotonin transmission.
Serotonin helps regulate sleep, appetite, mood and inhibits pain.
Low levels serotonin have been linked to a higher risk for suicide.
Exercise & Depression
It is believed that nerve cell connections, nerve cell growth, and the functioning of nerve circuits have a major impact on depression.
Use of new technology has led to a better understanding of which brain regions regulate mood and other functions like memory may be affected by depression.
The amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus can play a big role in depression.
Research shows that the hippocampus is smaller in some depressed people.
Chemical Imbalance
in the Brain
In major depression high levels of MAO-A is the primary process that lowers monoamine.
Having more MAO-A leads to a greater breakdown of key chemicals like serotonin
Results showed that MAO-A is much higher in every brain that scientists investigated.
On average MAO-A was 34% higher.
History of Depression
Depression was previously known as "melancholia".
The earliest accounts of melancholia appeared in the ancient Mesopotamian texts in the second millennium.
At the time all mental illnesses were indicated to demonic possessions and were attended to by priests.
The early Babylonian, chinese, and egyptian civilizations also viewed depression as a form of demonic possession.
They used exorcism techniques designed to drive demons out of the afflicted persons body as a form of treatment.
While early Romans and Greeks doctors thought that depression was both biological and psychological diseases.
Hippocrates Theory
Study published in 1999 divided 156 men and women with depression into three groups

1st group took an exercise program, 2nd group took antidepressants, and the 3rd group took both the program and the antidepressants

At the mid way mark of the study the researchers noticed that the depression had gotten better within all the groups

60-70% of the people in all the groups could be no longer labeled with major depression
Each group rates were almost identical - this suggests that for those who wish to avoid relying on medication can use daily exercise as being the substitute

Later studies found that the exercise's effects lasted longer than those of the antidepressants
Hippocrates suggested that personality traits and mental illnesses were connected to balanced or imbalanced body fluids called humours.
4 types humours: yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, and blood.
Classified mental illnesses into categories that included mania, melancholia, and phrentis (brain fever)
Melancholia was supposedly caused by too much black bile in the spleen.
Bloodletting, bathing, exercise and dieting were used to treat depression.
Here are a few ways:
"The Performance"
Some people with depression hide it and try to act like their normal selves.
They can do this for a number of reasons:
-They don't want it to affect people
-They don't want to draw attention to themselves
-They want o make themselves believe theres nothing wrong with them.


Depression today is usually treated with hospitalization
However sometimes it is necessary to do so
People who are at risk of hurting themselves or others
People who are unable to function
People who need observation when trying new medications (and or suffering side effects from medication)
People who need treatments that are only given in a hospital
How effective are antidepressants?
Side Effects & Risk Factors

what to think about:
Sleeping Habits
(good health habits)
sleeping disorders are core symptoms of depression (i.e sleep apnea, insomnia etc)
People who have depression often stay awake in bed thinking about all their problems - which is not healthy
the body needs sleep to restore and rest the mind
Making sure you get enough sleep at night on a daily basis is very important when it comes to overcoming depression
sleep deprivation only worsens the already existing symptoms or adds to the list
Severe depression is a serious illness that affects approximately 350 million people world wide. By the year 2030 depression is predicted to become the number one cause in disability.
What is Depression?
Depression is a medical illness that causes a constant feeling of sadness and lack of interest in anything.
Ex: If they think negative about themselves/self-label themselves.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Electro convulsive Therapy
Group Therapy
Depression is an important topic to be well educated on, much like mental health in general. You've just heard some of the various statistics regarding this mental illness and they may be surprising. Everyone should be aware of how important it is to make sure those with depression get the treatment and support they need. There have been cases where people didn't get help and have ended their lives because they felt that there was no way out. Us as a society should really work together and try and make a brighter future for those who suffer from depression. We should talk more about mental health and make everyone aware that that it is important to help out those who have it and try to encourage everyone else to help out as well. Mental health in general is widely affecting our society and we as a group need to make sure everyone knows the seriousness of the issue.

Thank You, The End
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