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Imperialism in Zimbabwe
Transcript of Imperialism in Zimbabwe
Made by Sarah Viebrock
Zimbabwe is a land in southeastern Africa of 150,873 square miles.The people who lived in Zimbabwe were called the Bushmen or San. They lived a life of hunting and gathering for thousands of years.The Shona people came and brought their cattle and pushed out the San and settled as farmers. The Shona built the fortress known as the Great Zimbabwe. In which it collapsed and was abandoned. In the south of Zimbabwe lived Mzilikazi was a former military commander of Zululand, and feuded with Shaka and fled Zululand in 1828. Mzilikazi founded the Ndebele kingdom which is present day Bulawayo around 1840. A rivalry between the Shona and the Ndebele played an important part in Zimbabwe history. The shona dominated Zimbabwe until the 1830s when the Ndebele came and spent the next fifty years slaughtering the Shona, stealing cattle, and establishing themselves as the main people of Zimbabwe. Mzilikazi died in 1868 and after a power struggle his son Lobengula became the ruler of Ndebele.
Zimbabwe before the Age of Imperialism
Between 1870-1900s, Africa faced European aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions and conquest and colonization for spread of imperialism
Africa tried to attempt resistance by the early twentieth century most of Africa was colonized by European countries except Ethiopia and Liberia
Three factors for Africa was economic, social and political
The scramble for Africa because of the demand for assured sources of raw materials, search for guaranteed markets and profitable investment outlets which was an economic influence
The political factor was caused by inter-European struggles and competition for superiority by taking territories
The social factor, is as a result of industrialization major social problems grew: unemployment, poverty, homelessness, social displacement from rural areas
Zimbabwe fell to British rule,Cecil Rhodes and weathly diamond trader founded the British South Africa Company in 1889
Rhodes planned to build a railroad running the length of Africa, Britian's Quen Victoria granted Rhodes and his company authority to enter African territory and place it under British government and protection
Most Europeans thought it was a good idea to claim African lands to show them the path to god and showed various tries of Christian denominations to teach religion tothe Africans
The British South Africa Company claimed Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia which is modern day Zimbabwe
In 1888 Charles Persuaded King Lobengula of Ndebele to grant the Rudd Concession. Which allowed the Brotish South Africa company to set up mining operations in specfic areas in the King's territory of Matabeleland, in Southern Rhodenesia
Lobengula changed his mind and wante to regain control of Matabeleland, he failed and the company tried to gain rights from Mashonland
The Rudd concession granted the company right to ectract minerals only.
How European countries took over (Scramble for Africa)
In 1890, the British South Africa Company organized the Pioneer column, a group of white soldiers and settlers drawn from British inhabitants of South Africa. In wanting to gain Mashonaland and make it safe for white settlement. The opportunity for the white settlers to find land ,gold and mineral deposits attracted more white settlers to come. Including Great Britain, France, Portugal, Greece and South Africa. Continuing to claim more and more land overtime.
In 1896 the Ndebele and Shona joined forces to eject the white settlers in a war called the First Chimurenga (war of liberation) in order to fight for their homeland. This rebellion took 400 settlers lives. Cecil Rhodes persuaded the Ndebele Chiefs to make peace but there was still some fighting against the Shona into 1897.
The colony was named Southern Rhodesia in Rhodes's honor and the British South Africa company governed until 1923. The British prime minister allowed Rhode's to follow his wish to build a Rhodesian society with equal rights and civilized man. However, The laws put in place were under segregation of housing, schools, and hospitals. The blacks did not have a say in the government or have an important role in society. The economy grew based on agriculture and mining but the blacks did not have a fair share.
At the end of World War II America political leaders continued to pressure the British and other European colonies power to give independence to the colonies. In Southern Rhodesia. black formed political organization in order to have a fair representation. Great Britain gave independence to its African colonies with the expectation that the black majority would take over the government of each nation. The minority did not want to give up its power to the black majority.
In April 18, 1980 Southern-Rhodesia gained independence from Britain which taking the name Zimbabwe. It marks the day of the end of racial segregation after the war of liberation.
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Rhodes wanted gold but also wanted to extend the British empire to create a land route from Cape Town to Egypt
Mineral discoveries in the 1860s, the 1870s, and the 1880s impacted Southern Africa
until 1869 to 1870 the diamond finds attracted a rush of several fortune hunters
The British attracted by the prospect of mineral wealth, and annexed the diamond fields
Mineral Discoveries in the 1860s,1870s, and 1880s made a huge impact on Southern Africa
Africans had mined gold for centuries at Mapungubwe which is in South Africa on the border of Zimbabwe and later was mined at the Great Zimbabwe
traded with Arabs and Portuguese on the east coast of Africa
The arrival of the British in Zimbabwe helped develop and create the new European states within South Africa
In 1860s the largest deposits of diamonds in the world which was discovered at Kimberley deep in the Cape Colony
In the 1880s the world's largest deposit of gold were discovered on the Witwatersrand, current day Johannesburg. Which was located just to the north of the Vaal river
Both these discoveries of gold and diamonds resulted in large inflation of European migrants in South Africa for the mineral discovered
by the end of the 18th century, the Dutch communities in Cape Town, in isolation from Europe create their own language. It was a combination of Dutch, Malay and various African languages which became known as Afrikaners. Later,in the 19th century the British gained control of the Cape and were referred to them as Boers which was Dutch for Farmers
Afrikaner communities were upset with British rule that they moved away into the interior of South Africa, but they were resisted away from Nguni, Sotho and Tswana communities until they were weakened by the Mfecane/Difaqane
The fight for Diamonds and Gold
Violence of the Rebillions:
has negatively impacted Zimbabwe because of:
The fight for Diamond and Gold
Government control by Cecil Rhodes
Violence of the Rebellions
Cecil Rhodes Ruling (government)
Rhodes was very rich because he made million by gaining control of the Kimberly diamond mines in 1860s
Using his fortune to help become the head of government in the Cape Colony in 1880s
His three goals: wanted to gain control of the gold fields of the Transvaal from himself and other European businessmen, also wanted to make sure the Afrikaners did not gain access to mineral deposits north of the Limpopo in Zimbabwe that he thought were there, finally he a great supporter of British colonialism in Africa and wanted to colonize Cape town in South Africa to Cairo in Egypt
Rhodes proposed a commercial company that he would fund,the British South African Company (BSAC)
It would give the company the tight to make treaties with African ruler north of the Limpopo and the treaties would serve on behalf of the British government
Also the BSAC would be given mineral and land rights in the new colonies and would have right to sell and distribute land confiscated from the Ndebele and Shona people
In 1887, The BSAC under control of Rhodes granted a royal charter to colonize the areas north of the Limpopo rivers
The royal charter gave the BSAC permission to make treaties for the British but could not directly invade and conquer Zimbabwe
In order to colonize Zimbabwe they were forced to engage in deceit, misrepresentations and lies
Both the Shona and Ndebele peoples were upset with the invasion of their land by the Europeans settlers and their terrible treatment by the BSAC
Ndebele angered by how the BSAC gained control of their kingdom by the death of Lobengula, the humiliating treatment of their chiefs , the heft of their lands and cattle by the settlers, the removal of many Ndebele people from the central part of the Kingdom around Bulawayo to more arid native reserves to the north
In early 1896, there was an outbreak of rinderpest, a cattle disease in Matabeleland. To keep the disease from spreading the BSAC order all the cattle to be killed in the affected areas
In March 1896, Ndebele warriors attacked European mining and farming compounds outside of Bulawayo killing some settlers
In 1896, a number of Shona communities in north eastern Zimbabwe attacked the European settler communities. Similar to the Ndebele their land had been invaded, cattle and crop stolen increasing numbers forced off farmland, and taxes were imposed on the Shona to make them work in harsh conditions
The Shona uprising came from spiritual leaders, and believed the spiritual essence of those who die , ancestors, continue to have an active interest in the welfare of their families and communities
In 1896-1897, two of the most important Shona religions, Nehanda and Kaguvi spread a message that the ancestors were very unhappy with actions of the Europeans and the BSAC. The priests continued to encourage the people to rise up against the invaders
The Shona rising was called the Chimurenga lasted longer and was more destructive of life and property than the Ndebele uprising
Counter Claim: Imperialism impacted Zimbabwe positively.
Yes, British imperialism and Cecil Rhodes did have some positive impact on Zimbabwe. For example, He did bring Zimbabwe some relief from their ruler Mugabe that always repress political opponents. Also, he did have positive intentions in regarding to help expanding. But his ruling, laws and over expansion ideas caused rebellions , racial discrimination and chaos all around. Which made the Zimbabwe people revolt, angry and filled with hatred.