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Contemporary Art

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tony cheetham

on 14 August 2017

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Transcript of Contemporary Art

Contemporary Art
Some works of contemporary art are not shown in a gallery. Land art, internet art, mail art, installation art and other emerging forms often exist outside a gallery due to being site-specific. Documentation of these kinds of art such as photographic records, are often shown and sold in galleries however, as are preliminary or process drawings and collages
What is contemporary art?When is contemporary art?
There are various timescales for Contemporary Art.
One is art produced by living artists, so roughly any art made in the last 100 years.
Smaller commercial galleries, magazines and other sources may use stricter definitions, perhaps restricting the "contemporary" to work from 2000 onwards.
Others date it from1980 onwards.
"The problem is that as time moves forward, art & artists get left behind. Today’s visionary is tomorrow’s stale news."

Useful websites

Artist: Paul Klee ,1914.
- After Klee’s visit to Tunisia, where he was inspired by the quality of light, he returned home with the determination to be a painter, which was something he previously was unable to call himself. This led him to create this painting, a composition of simple colored shapes, and was the first purely abstract painting created by Paul Klee.

Contemporary Art includes painting, sculpture, mixed media and photography of all types and movements, for example Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Photo realism, Colour Field, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Realism, and Post Minimalism.
Huntsmen & Hounds, 1914,Sir Alfred James Munnings (8 October 1878 – 17 July 1959) was known as one of England's finest painters of horses, and as an outspoken enemy of Modernism.
Anonymous Female Specimen, Michael Mapes, 2014, 58 x 56 cm

Photographs, fabric samples, painted photographs, botanical specimens, x-rays, tea, tobacco, coffee, cast resin, clay, thread, dental floss, insect pins, capsules, specimen bags, magnifying boxes
Nationale-Nederlanden building, Vlado Milunić & Frank Gehry, 1996
Pat Keck, Messengers, 2001
Painted wood and mixed media coin activated, animated. Delivers printed message.
85 × 60 × 30 in
An art movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly, and with force to their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions, painting gesturally, non-geometrically, sometimes applying paint with large brushes, sometimes dripping or even throwing it onto canvas. Their work is characterized by a strong dependence on what appears to be accident and chance, but which was actually highly planned.

The Flesh Eaters, William Baziotes, 1952, oil on canvas, 152 x 183 cm. Fantastical biomorphic forms built from layer upon layer of thinned oil paint that has been gradually rubbed onto the canvas to create a rich surface.
Abstract Expressionism

Night Creatures, Lee Krasner, 1965, acrylic on paper, 76 x 108
The Transcendental, Richard Pousette-Dart, 1941-42, 281 x 356 cm
Woman 1, Willem de Kooning, 1950-52, oil on canvas, 192 x 147 cm
Blue Poles, Jackson Pollock, 1952, oil, enamel, aluminium paint, glass on canvas, 212.1 h x 488.9 w cm
Pop Art
"The name given to art made in America and Britain from the mid 1950s that reached its peak in the 1960s. It drew inspiration from sources in popular and commercial culture. It was a revolt against prevailing attitudes in art (abstract expressionism) and life (high culture was more important than popular culture) and can be seen as one of the first signs of postmodernism. Sources pop artists used for their work included Hollywood movies, advertising, packaging, pop music and comic books. Modernist critics were horrified by the pop artists’ use of such low subject matter and by their apparently uncritical treatment of it. In fact pop took art into new areas of subject matter and developed new ways of presenting it in art."
Whaam!, Roy Lichtenstein, 1963,acrylic & oil, 172 x 406 cms
$he, Richard Hamilton, 1958-6,oil, cellulose paint, paper & plastic
$he explores the imagery of consumerism and female identity, bringing together advertisements for household appliances alongside fragmentary images of a model taken from Esquire magazine. ‘Sex is everywhere, symbolised in the glamour of mass-produced luxury – the interplay of fleshy plastic and smooth, fleshier metal’, Hamilton wrote. ‘This relationship of woman and appliance is a fundamental theme of our culture; as obsessive and archetypal as the Western movie gun duel.’
Marilyn Diptych, Andy Warhol, 1962, acrylic silkscreen, 205 x 149 cm
Wittgenstein in New York, Sir Eduardo Paolozzi, 1964, screenprint, 76 x 54
"Photo-realism, also called Super-realism, began in the 1960s, taking photography as its inspiration. Photo-realist painters created highly realistic images that referred not to nature but to the reproduced image. Artists such as Richard Estes, Ralph Goings, Audrey Flack, Robert Bechtle, and Chuck Close attempted to reproduce what the camera could record. Several sculptors, including the Americans Duane Hanson and John De Andrea, were also associated with this movement. The painters relied on photographs, the sculptors cast from live models.

Photo-realism grew out of the Pop and Minimalism movements that preceded it. Like Pop artists, the Photo-realists were interested in breaking down hierarchies (a system in which aspects of society are ranked according to relative status) of appropriate subject matter by including everyday scenes of commercial life—cars, shops, and signage, for example. Also like Pop artists the Photo-realists drew from advertising and commercial imagery. The Photo-realists’ used an industrial or mechanical technique such as photography as the foundation for their work in order to create a detached and impersonal effect . Yet many saw Photo-realism’s revival of illusionism (a work of art that appears to share the physical space with the viewer) as a challenge to the pared-down Minimalist aesthetic, and many saw the movement as an attack on the ideas that had been developed by modern abstract painting.

Photo-realists typically projected a photographed image onto a canvas and then used an airbrush to reproduce the effect of a photo printed on glossy paper." Encyclopaedia Britannica

Gum Ball No. 10, Charles Bell 1975, oil, 167 x 167 cm
Chanel, Audrey Flack, 1974, oil, acrylic, airbrush, 230 x 150 cm
Telephone Booths, Richard Estes, 1968, oil, 122 x 175.3 cm
Mark, Chuck Close 1979. acrylic on canvas, 296 x 210 cm
Traveler, Duane Hanson, 1985, autobody filler, polychromed with oil, mixed media
Bob's Sebring, Robert Bechtle, 2011, oil, 101 x 146 cm

In the visual arts and music, minimalism is a style that uses pared-down design elements. It has European roots in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, and the Russian Constructivist movement. A style characterized by an impersonal austerity, plain geometric configurations and industrially processed materials. "The more stuff in it, the busier the work of art, the worse it is. More is less. Less is more" Ad Rheinhardt, painter
Untitled (Stack), Donald Judd, 1967, lacquer on iron, each 22 x 101 x 79 cm

"A simple geometric form Judd favoured because he felt it carried no symbolic meaning. Depending on the height of the ceiling where the work is displayed, the number of units may be reduced in order to maintain even spacing between them. Judd made this work based on a predetermined system, circumventing the spontaneous decisions artists often face during the art-making process. Like many of his Minimalist contemporaries, Judd used industrial materials and had the work fabricated in a metal workshop according to his specifications." www.moma.org
Untitled (wheeling peachblow), Dan Flavin, 1966-68, daylight, yellow and pink fluorescent light, 244 x 244 cm

"The palette of this light construction takes its cue from the hues present in Wheeling Peachblow glass, a nineteenth-century glass (largely manufactured in Wheeling, West Virginia) with deep coral to luminous yellow coloration. "
Harran II, Frank Stella, 1967, polymer & fluorescent polymer, 304 x 609 cm
Innocent Love, Agnes Martin, 1996, oil, 150 x 150 cm each
"The Neo-Expressionist artists treated their subjects in an almost raw and brutish manner, returning to the highly textural and expressive brushwork and intense colours that had been so recently rejected by major preceding art movements. Because Neo-Expressionism used historical and mythological imagery - some art historians believe that Neo-Expressionism played an important role in the transition from modernism to post-modernism. Because the work of the Neo-Expressionist artists was so closely linked to buying, selling, and the commercial system of art with its galleries, critics, and media hype some in the field began to question its authenticity as art that was pure. Thus its popularity was also the seed of its demise." http://www.theartstory.org/movement-neo-expressionism.htm
Dein Haare (Your Hair), Anselm Kiefer, 2005, oil, emulsion, acrylic, charcoal, plaster, wooden chair, metal and branches, 280 x 380 cm
From The Front, Georg Baselitz, 1985, relief print, 65 x 49 cm
"Although the figure has often been central in Baselitz's painting, his approach to it suggests a deep unease about the possibility of celebrating humanity in the wake of the Holocaust and WWII." http://www.theartstory.org/artist-baselitz-georg.htm
Die Zukunft des Emigraten (The Future of Emigrants), A R Penck, 1983, 260 x 350 cm
Satori Three inches Within Your Heart, David Salle, 1988, acrylic & oil on 6 canvases on wood, 214 x 291 cm
Untitled (Boxer), Jean-Michel Basquiat, 1983, acrylic & oil paintstick, 193 x 239 cm
Young British Artists (YBA)
"Label applied to a loose group of British artists who began to exhibit together in 1988 and who became known for their openness to materials and processes, perceived shock tactics and entrepreneurial attitude. The label turned out to be a powerful brand and marketing tool, but of course it concealed huge diversity. The era is marked by a complete openness towards the materials and processes with which art can be made, and the form that it can take" www.tate.org

Now many of the artists involved such as Damien Hirst and Tracy Emin have become part of the art establishment they were striking out against when they started.
Christ You Know It Ain't Easy, Sarah Lucas, 2003, fibreglass, cigarettes, 195 x 182 x 40 cm
Tragic Anatomies, Jake & Dinos Chapman 1996, Fibreglass, resin & paint
Begging For It, Gary Hume, 1996, gloss paint on panel, 200 x 150 cm
Propped, Jenny Saville, 1992, oil on canvas, 215 x 183 cm
Afrodizzia(2nd version), Chris Ofili, 1996, acrylic, oil, polyester resin, paper collage, glitter, map pins, elephant dung, 243 x 182 cm
Untitled (emergency room), Fiona Rae RA, 1996, oil and acrylic, 213 x 198
Preserve Beauty, Anya Gallaccio, 1991, 2000 gerberas, glass, metal, rubber, 260 x 535 x 2.5 cms
"Graffiti art, and underground street culture in general, has long been seen as provocative and uncompromising. It has close connections to gang culture; originally vandalizing objects and places to mark their territory. Today, graffiti art is now a respected and new art form, a rich medium with no restrictions and plenty of freedom to work with.

Graffiti is a subjective art form. Some regard it as a new and rising art form, and others regard it as plain vandalism. In most countries it is regarded illegal. Thus graffiti art is sometimes referred to as ‘underground art’. Artists are forced to create their works in the dark, hiding from the police, officials and the common city dwellers." http://www.1stwebdesigner.com

Untitled, A1one, 2012, spraypaint
Street Mural in Cairo, Alaa Awad, 2012, mixed media
Wild Style graffiti, 1980's, spraypaint
I Am The Best Artist, Rene, 1986, spraypaint
The Rolling People, Ingrid, 2013 Dulwich Street Festival, mixed media
Edo Pop, Aiko, 2013, spraypaint & stencil
Obama, David Choe, 2008, poster, 47x63
Digital Art
"Digital technology has revolutionized the way we produce and experience art. Not only have printing, painting, photography and sculpture been transformed by digital techniques, but entirely new forms such as net art, software art, digital installations and virtual reality have emerged as recognized artistic practices, collected by major museums, institutions and private collectors the world over." Thames & Hudson.com
Clouds, James George & Jonathan Minard, 2013, still from digital film made using a hacked X-Box
Mutator No 58, William Latham, 1996, fractal generated digital image
The image is modified by the intervention of a computer virus that destroys and reconstructs the image.
euphOricanus, Joseph Nechvatal, 2011, digital image on velvet
Untitled, George Daou, 2012, digital photo collage & manipulation

Metachaos by Alessandro Bavari, 2010, Digital Video and Audio Art
Berlin Alexanderplatz/One Day Of Mrs Houdini, Istvan Horkay, 2003, digital collage, 120 x 48 cm
Skybox, LEE, 2012, pixel art
Muy Bridge Part 2 T-Shirt, The T-Shirt Issue Design Team,2014, digital manipulation, jersey fabric
"The Muybridge series is a digital approach to transporting classic dynamics onto standalone jersey garments.

For our second study on temporal change in 3D, a bird in full flight is rigged, animated and exported into T-shirts. The T-shirts represent three frozen frames from the animated flight, displaying a different position of the bird's body during this motion.

With „Muybridge Pt_2“ , we again lean on Eadward Muybridge's photography work in the late 1800s, with which he pioneered in the field of capturing animal and human locomotion."

"Paul Brown studied at the Slade from 1977 to 1979. His computer-generated drawings use individual elements that evolve or propagate in accordance with a set of simple rules. Brown developed a tile-based image generating system. Despite using relatively simple forms, it would have taken a long time to write a program to produce a work such as this." http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/computer-art-history/
Land Art
"Land art is made directly in the landscape, sculpting the land into earthworks or making structures using natural materials found in the landscape such as rocks or twigs" www.tate.org.uk
Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson, 1970, mud, salt crystals,rocks, water, 500 x 5 metres
Waterfall Line 2, Richard Long, 2000, river mud on emulsion, 454 x 14550 cm
Another Place, Antony Gormley, 1997, 100 cast iron figures, 2.5 x 1 kilometers
Sand, Wind & Tide series, The Boyle Family, 1969, resin casts
Ice Star, Andy Goldsworthy, 1987, colour photograph of ice, 77 x 75 cm
Sun Tunnels, Nancy Holt, 1973-76, concrete, steel and soil, each tunnel6 x 3 metres, overall 3 x 22 x 17 metres.
Arranged on the desert floor in a cross pattern that aligns with the sunrise and sunset during the summer and winter solstices. In addition to this perfect solar framing, each of the cylinders is pierced with smaller holes representing the stars of four constellations: Draco, Perseus, Columba, and Capricorn.
"Mail art is a populist ( the common people as opposed to the elite) artistic movement centered around sending small scale works through the postal service. It initially developed out of the Fluxus movement in the 1950s and 60s, though it has since developed into a global movement that continues to the present. The American artist Ray Johnson is considered to be the first mail artist, and the New York Correspondence School that he developed is considered the first self-conscious network of mail artists.

Media commonly used in mail art include postcards, paper, a collage of found or recycled images and objects, rubber stamps, artist-created stamps (called artistamps), and paint, but can also include music, sound art, poetry, or anything that can be put in an envelope and sent via post. Mail art is considered art once it is dispatched" wikipedia.org

Mail art by Ray Johnson and a returned piece, date unknown
Mail Art Stamps, Keith Bates, 2010
Mail Art 3,Ficus Strangulensis, 1991, cardboard, electrical tape, stickers, labels, stamps, 20 x 27 cm
Mail Art, Jack Oudyn, 2014
Installation art

Describes three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to work in interior spaces.
Embankment, Rachel Whiteread, 2005, polystyrene
"The way in which installation art insists upon the viewer’s presence in a space has necessarily led to a number of problems about how it is remembered. You have to make big imaginative leaps if you haven’t actually experienced the work first hand. Like a joke that fails to be funny when repeated, you had to be there" www.tate.org
The Weather Project, Olafur Eliasson, 2003, monofrequency lights, projection foil, haze machines, mirror foil, aluminium and scaffolding, 26 x 22 x 155 metres
The Obliteration Room, Yayoi Kusama, 2012. The Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama transformed a completely white room, including furniture, into a spectacle featuring her signature dots, helped by children who visited the exhibition over two weeks and placed brightly coloured stickers throughout the installation at the Gallery of Modern Art, Brisbane.
The Coral Reef, Mike Nelson, 2000, 15 rooms, lights, columns, chairs, mirrors, printed papers and other materials, overall display dimensions variable
This Year
These are examples of work in a variety of disciplines that have been produced in the last year.
Bad Vibes, Ella Kruglyanskaya, 2013
Illustration, Christian Ward, 2013
Coke45, Darren Iago, 2013, metal wood plastic, glass &Coca Cola, 15 x 31 x 6 cm
Wall, Santiago Garcia, 2014, oil & acrylic, 88 x 78 cm
Untitled, Armand Boua, 2013, tar & acrylic on cardboard, 82 x 95 cm
The Great Realisations Of 2035, Boris Nzebo, 2014, acrylic, 230 x 200 cm
Ljubica, Jelena Bulajic, 2012, mixed media on canvas, 270 x 200 cm
Solutions For Polke (6+6 = 5), Suzanne McClelland, 2013, dry pigment,gesso, polymer & oil paint on linen, 101 x 122 cm
Contemporary art has reached a point where all the styles and approaches of the past and from around the world are available to be used by any artist or designer. This "remix" approach has good points e.g. - it allows total freedom of expression - and bad points e.g. - it is difficult to be new and original. This however may reflect the world we live in - fast paced, interconnected and pluralist (the idea that there are several values that may be equally correct).
"Although the painting appears direct and spontaneous, de Kooning worked on Woman, I for over a year and a half, during which he interspersed vigorous painting sessions with long periods of looking and thinking". www.moma.org
Spam, Ed Ruscha, 1962, oil on canvas, 170 x 183 cm
Can you make something original using objects that are widely available?
Mail Art artistamps
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