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GCSE PE revision

All you need to know!
by

andy david

on 26 April 2013

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Transcript of GCSE PE revision

GCSE PE
Everything I need to know Health, fitness and an active lifestyle Health: The complete state of social,physical and mental well-being and free from illness or disease. Social: Having friends and
socialising will help you lead
a happy life and is more likely
to mean you are active Mental: If you are not stressed and you lead a
relaxed life you are more likely to avoid illness and disease Physical: having enough physical ability
to complete every day tasks (5R's) Fitness: The ability to complete every day tasks and meet the demands of the environment. There are 2 types: skill/specific and general/health related fitness. General/health related fitness: the ability to complete everyday tasks and compete at club level. There are 5 characteristics - stamina, speed, suppleness,strength and somatotype. Stamina: the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to work for a long period of time. There are 2 types: muscular endurance (dynamic strength) and cardiovascular endurance. Cardiovascular endurance:the ability of your heart to work for a long period of time. The 5000m is a good example Muscular endurance: the ability of a muscle to work for a long period of time. A good example is the quadriceps working in cycling. Speed: the ability to move quickly. The 100m is clearly a good example to use. Strength: the ability to apply a force or overcome a resistance. There are 3 types: dynamic (muscular endurance), static and explosive (power) Dynamic: the ability of a group of muscles to work for a long period of time. Either use the quadriceps in cycling or the deltoids in rowing Suppleness: The range of movement around a joint Somatotype: The structure or build of a person. There are three types; Ectomorph,Endomorph and mesomorph Explosive/power: Speed x strength Static: the ability to exert a force against an immoveable object. Skill/specific fitness: the ability to complete everyday tasks and compete at a high level. There are 5 characteristics - Agility, balance,coordination,explosive power,fast reactions Agility:The ability to change direction at speed Balance: the ability to maintain a stable position for a period of time coordination: the ability to use two or more body parts at the same time Explosive/power: Speed x strength fast reactions: the ability to respond quickly to a stimulus How do we test our fitness? How do we improve our fitness? continuous/fartlek Light weights/lots of reps Plyometrics/SAQ heavy weights/low reps stretching/yoga Interval/plyometrics/SAQ Practice Remember! Circuits is great for all training as you can make it specific but make sure you know all the types for the exam! Some examples of training sessions When you know the sport pause the video and try and write down what types of training you expect to see. Principles of training session= a one off training plan
programme=a series of planned sessions Threshold=the point at which training improves fitness S
P
O
R
V Specificity= your training must replicate what you do in your sport James Haskell plays number 8 in rugby. He needs to be quick and strong (power). Watch his specific training regime replicate what he does in a game Progressive overload: Gradually make your training
harder as your fitness improves. We do this by using
F
I
T
T Frequency: Increase the number of times you train Intensity: Increase the weight,do more
increase sets and reps, decrease recovery Time: work for longer, reduce rest periods Type: Change the training so that your body does not get used to the training you do (variation) Reversibility: if you don't train then you will lose your fitness. Try and find something to do even when you are injured Variance: Don't keep doing the same training or you will get bored. Mix your training up. Reps=one complete exercise
Sets=A group of repetitions Training zones Training zones are used to show how hard you are working. You need to know your max HR (220-age) and then you can work out how hard you are working Essentially there are 2 zones
Aerobic=60-80% aerobic
Anaerobic=80%+ To see improvements you need
to work at your aerobic threshold
(80% for endurance) and
anaerobic threshold (90%
for power) When you are training it is hard to take your heart rate unless you have a heart rate monitor. It is much easier to use the Borg Scale or the perceived rate of exertion (PRE) Altitude training is great
for endurance runners Warm weather training is used by
all sports, normally during pre-
season. The training year is split into three;
Pre-season- progressive overload of strength and endurance followed by specific skill work
Competition - season starts
Closed season - time to relax on holiday, recover from injuries. Fatigue and stress Personality: the traits and characteristics that make us individuals There are 2 types: introverts and extroverts Introverts are shy, reserved, avoid crowds and attention and prefer to be alone. Extroverts seek attention, prefer to be in crowds and surround themselves with people There are problems with this theory. Not all rugby players are extroverts and not all athletes are introverts. Look at Phillips Idowu and Andrew Sheridan. Aggression: acting forcefully within the rules of the sport to achieve your aim - its a good thing so don't confuse with cheating or over aggressive behaviour There are 2 types: direct and indirect Direct: applying a force directly to an opponent Indirect: applying a force to an object to achieve your aim Motivation: the needs and wants that drive us to succeed There are 2 types: Intrinsic and extrinsic Intrinsic: doing sport for reasons within; fun, enjoyment, love of doing it. Extrinsic: doing sport for external reasons; for medals, rewards money or praise Anxiety: feelings of stress and nerves caused by feelings of worry Arousal: Feeling of alertness in a sporting situation The Inverted U Theory shows the relationship between arousal and performance. There are 3 zones; under, optimal and over aroused. Under aroused is when a performer or team are not aroused enough and underestimate their opponent(s). This often happens in the FA Cup when low league team beat Premiership Teams Optimal arousal is where you are in the 'zone' and completely prepared and ready to perform. Arousal is medium and performance is high. Over aroused is where you have got too aroused and this has resulted in aggressive behaviour. This often happens after a bad tackle in rugby Feedback is the response you get to your performance There are 2 types: intrinsic and extrinsic Intrinsic is the feedback from within that you give yourself. A bobsledder will constantly be givining themselves feedback. Extrinsic is the feedback you get from a coach or a video of your performance. The respiratory system broadly speaking we have 2 energy systems: aerobic and anaerobic Aerobic: exercising in the presence of oxygen
glucose + oxygen energy + carbon dioxide + water Any activity over 1 min will be using the aerobic system predominantly The 800m is approx 66% aerobic (the middle part of the race) and 34% anaerobic (start and finish) Anaerobic: exercising in the absence of oxygen
glucose -} energy + lactic acid. Any explosive activity lasting a few seconds will use the anaerobic system The hammer is very explosive blood has many functions What happens if we exercise anaerobically for too long? We experience oxygen debt: a lack of oxygen in the muscles leading eventually to a build up of lactic acid To repay the oxygen debt you need to slow the intensity of your exercise down and get more oxygen into your body The skeletal system There are 5 functions;
Support
Protect
Produce red blood cells
Shape
Movement There are 3 types of joint Immoveable: joints that do not move and need to protect (cranium) Slightly moveable: joints that need to provide a bit of movement, but not too much. Freely moveable: These joints provide lots of movement and allow us to play all the sports we like. Skeletal movements Adduction: movement towards the
centre line of the body Abduction: movement towards the
centre line of the body Rotation: Side to side movement around a joint Circumduction: circular movement around a joint Flexion: decreasing the angle at a joint Extension: Increasing the angle at a joint Muscular system There are 3 types of muscle Smooth/involuntary: the muscle surrounding
the vital organs cardiac/involuntary: This is just the heart Skeletal/voluntary: any muscle involved in movement e.g bicep/deltoid/quadricep When we move you need to remember 2 things;

1. Muscles always work in pairs
2. Both muscles pull and one get longer and the other shorter Look at this image. As she jumps her knee is flexed. Her hamstring pulls the fibula towards her gluteals. Her hamstring is getting shorter. On the opposite side her quadricep gets longer Her hamstring is the agonist (the muscle working hard/shortening/contracting) Her quadricep is the antagonist (the muscle relaxing/getting longer) Look at this image. As he kicks the ball his knee extends. His quadricep pulls the tibia towaards the patella. His quadricep is getting shorter. On the opposite side his hamstring gets longer His quadricep is the agonist and the hamstring is the antagonist International and other factors The media: the main means of mass communication The press Radio The internet Television Radio There are 3 types of programme:
1. Entertainment (Question of Sport)
2. Educational (Panorama)
3. Informative (Sky Sports News) Directors influence/cut: the director of the programme you watch can control what you see and show what they want to show Role Models A person looked up to by others Kick off times are planned to start and finish in time with adverts Some sports are changed to make
them more attractive to viewers. Some sports have lots of TV coverage (mens football) whilst others have very little (womens football) Advantages of the media:
1. It can create role models
2. It can bring in money for the sport
3. It can give exposure to the sport and
inspire people to play it Disadvantages of the media:
1. It can destroy role models (tabloids/paparazzi)
2. It can ignore some sports and not give them the exposure they need Characteristics of good role models:
Successful
Fair (don't cheat)
Have self control
Respectful
Honest Role models
can inspire you to train harder
Improve your skills/techniques
Make you behave the right way
Inspire you to try something new
Encpurage you when you need motivating Bad role models can do the exact opposite! Sponsorship
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