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Transcript of French Revolution
By: Ms. Scarpa
Enlightenment influenced by Scientific Rev.
Enlightenment ideas influenced English, American, and French Revolutions. French supported Americans in American Rev.
Enlightenment thinkers valued
, which was in opposition to "divine right" and questioned the king's power. "Pursuit of happiness" was to be found in
world instead of the next. Drive for equality=threat to aristocracy
Philosophes included Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu.
Two theorists, John Locke and Thomas Hobbes were highly influential.
Hobbes= Men are motivated by desire for power and fear of others, so we need all-powerful sovereign. Human nature=scientific
Locke (generation later)= Humankind innately good. 3 basic rights.
Leading Up to Rev:
Louis XV's defeat in Seven Years' War and French support in American Revolution put France into national debt. Money used to support American Rev. taxed from peasants.
Growth of French population from 20 mil to 26 mil in 18th Century.
Medieval caste system still instated (ancien régime)
The third estate made up about 98% of the population and paid all of the taxes, even though the other two estates had all the $$.
A Match Made in...
After Louis XV dies of smallpox, his grandson Louis XVI ascends the throne. Young, indecisive, and overwhelmed, Louis prays "Protect us Lord, for we reign too young."
Married to Marie Antoinette as a political union between Austria's royal Hapsburg family and France's Bourbons. First time in history the two are allied.
Because what 14 year old gal
doesn't love shoes and hair?!
Bad harvests and a harsh winter between 1788-9 have caused the prices of bread to skyrocket and one loaf of bread is costing one month's wages. People are rioting, breaking into bakeries, and lynching those who they think are hiding bread.
All the while Louis & Marie are living in extravagance at the Palace of Versailles, which was built to separate the royal family from the Parisians.
So while the majority of France is suffering food shortages, Louis XVI looks like this...
...and Marie looks like this...
The hair is a symbol of everything wrong with Versailles culture.
Her nickname is now
Louis appoints a finance minister, Jacques Necker, who urges him to call a meeting of the Estates-General (meeting of representatives from all three estates) to work to solve financial crisis. THIS IS A HUGE DEAL! The EG hasn't met in 175 years!
One little problem...in the past each estate got one vote, which always left the 3rd estate at a loss. 3rd Estate wants to meet together and vote individually. Louis refuses.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes speaks on part of 3rd estate.
On June 17, 1789, 3rd Estate declares itself the National Assembly due to Louis' inaction.
On June 20, deputes find they are locked out of the meeting of the EG, so they find another place to meet...
...KING LOUIS' TENNIS COURT!
They defy the king by swearing not to leave until a new constitution is drafted. Louis gave in and ordered the Estates to meet together. This is the National Assembly's "Tennis Court Oath."
Although Louis gave in, he still ordered troops to Paris (where representatives were meeting) and the NA thought he was trying to forcefully drive them away.
The Storming of the Bastille:
In defense the people formed a National Guard led by Gen. Lafayette and raided the military hospital in Paris for weapons. Problem was, they had guns, but no gunpowder.
one thing leads to another
On July 14, the Parisians decide to raid the Bastille!
Bastille= French despotism and tyranny
Prison guard Bernard Rene de Launay tried to barricade prison before mob could reach it...
The Parisians tear apart the Bastille brick by brick.
Tricolor Flag formed
During July & August a "Great Fear" sweeps Paris. People fear that the royals are going to hoard grain and starve them into submission.
Peasants attacked manor houses and monasteries, burning documents which recorded feudal dues and rents.
August 4, NA abolishes any traces of feudalism. No more tithes or feudal dues.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen:
Adopted August 27, 1789.
Influenced by English Bill of Rights and American Declaration of Independence.
Document stated that men are equal and born equal under law.
Demanded a constitutional monarchy.
Advocated for freedom of speech and press (Robespierre & Marat).
Not extended to women.
Olympe de Gouges wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citicenesses, but was turned down by NA.
Jean Paul Marat:
Former doctor rejected by France's Academy of Sciences. Sees Revolution as his chance at revenge. Begins newspaper L'ami du Peuple. He is paranoid and thinks everyone is plotting against him. Viewed as some sort of revolutionary savior. Murdered in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday.
Women's March on Versailles:
King held party where insults were made against NA and royalist tunes were played.
Large, strong peasant women marched to Versailles to murder the king and queen. They were fighting over which body part of Marie's each woman could rip off. "Let them eat cake" rumor.
Women break into palace, sever heads of guards and corner Marie. King agrees to sign DORM and agrees to move to Paris. They are precessed down streets of Paris with their guards' heads on pikes (made up all pretty!)
Women take flour from the palace.
Women's March on Versailles
Reforms in Government:
NA divides France into 83 equal districts (departments).
Constitutional monarchy created.
NA shoulders national debt. Seize land belonging to Church and sell it to public. Proceeds--> debt
Mostly purchased by wealthier peasants who were renting the land.
Constitution of 1791:
NA finishes drafting constitution which limits king's power (couldn't proclaim or block laws). Govt. divided into e-l-j branches.
Tax-paying male voters elected members of new Legislative Assembly. Even though constitution argued for equal rights and power, wealthy men held most of political power
Louis agreed to constitution, but was plotting with émigrés.
On June 21, 1792
Louis & Marie disguise themselves as servants and try to flee France. They are caught near Austrian border. People of France feel betrayed and abandoned.
People discuss creation of
a republic due to
distrust of Louis.
Legislative Assembly & War
New government under Constitution of 1791 went into effect in Oct, but was not strong enough, and lasted barely a year.
Reason for this:
1. No sturdy govt. was created to replace Old Regime. Strong legislative branch was there, but weak executive branch.
2. Arguments between those who thought revolution had not gone far enough (workers) and those who thought it had gone too far (nobles and bourgeoisie).
Legislative Assembly had 3 types of people: 1.Conservative- sat on right
2.Radical- sat on left
3.Moderates- Depended on issue at hand
At the head of the revolution was Maximilien Robespierre, who although once argued for freedom of speech, press, universal suffrage, and an end to slavery and the death penalty.
Execution in France was torturous for everyone except for nobility, and Robespierre argued for equal death.
we're going to stumble upon him again soon.
Declaration of Pillnitz created by Marie's brother, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia to help restore French monarchy with the help of other Euro. rulers.
In April 1792, Legislative Assembly votes to declare war on Austria to increase their influence, but keep Prussia out.
BUT PRUSSIA AINT COOL WIT DAT!
...aaannddd they both invade France.
Rumor has it that Louis & Marie are plotting with Austria to defeat France and revolution will end. SCANDAL!
Radicals (mostly sans-culottes) seize control of city gov. and call themselves the Commune. Prussian commander, Duke of Brunswick, threatens to destroy Paris and revolutionaries if harm comes to royal family. Members of Commune threaten LA if they don't abolish monarchy. Commune accuse Louis of trying to overthrow Constitution of 1791.
August 10, 1792, citizens storm Tuileries Palace and there are more than 1600 deaths total. Royal family is imprisoned. Monarchy is suspended and French republic is born. New constitution now needs to be drafted.
Delegates elected by universal manhood suffrage (every white male can vote.)
First meeting 1792:
Girondists- republican middle class, feared domination of France by Paris
Jacobins- radical republican political club, favored domination of France by Paris.
Neutral- Came to favor Jacobins.
Two groups fighting for control of national government.
On streets of Paris were the sans-culottes (wore long trousers). Moderately well-off artisans, shopkeepers, and tradesmen. They are led by a doctor, Jean-Paul
With the majority of able-bodied males fighting for the French army, Paris is vulnerable to internal turmoil. Prisons are full and the foreign army is being fought back at borders.
First week in September news reaches Paris that Prussia has taken Verdun (fortress on road to Paris.)
Sans-culottes break into prison, slaughter and mutilate prisoners and eviscerate priests.
Louis is put on trial by Jacobins, who want to keep the revolution alive, and he is sentenced to death by guillotine. January 21, 1793 Louis was beheaded.
French army defeats Austrian & Prussian armies and invades Austrian Netherands.
Europe is worried about France trying to export ideas of revolution by force.
GB, Netherlands, Spain, and kingdom of Sardinia joined Austria and Prussia (First Coalition) to form alliance against France. They drive troops from AN and invade France.
1793 the National Assembly established the Committee of Public Safety, which would help the army overpower foreign invaders and also try the enemies of the revolution.
In order to keep the army strong against invaders, the CPS adopted conscription for men of all classes --> nationalism.
uprisings against revolutionary government = counterrevolution
REIGN OF TERROR
Heads will roll
Led by Robespierre from September 1793-94.
Directed by Jacobins.
People were tried on mere suspicion.
Executed twice as many bourgeoisie as nobles and clergy, and nearly three times as many peasants and laborers as from all other classes.
In July 1794 Robespierre was executed and ROT ended with him.
Work of National Convention:
Provided for a national system of public education and abolished slavery in the French colonies.
Adopted new calendar with names which reflected the seasons. Did not last because it increased the days in the week to 10.
By 1795 French had driven invaders away from French soil and conquered territory as far as the Rhine. First Coalition began to break up.
Crushed uprising in Paris in October 1795.
Constitution of 1795 created the government: the Directory, which governed for four years and didn’t please radicals or conservatives. Became as unpopular as Old Regime because prices skyrocketed and the five directors were corrupt and ineffective.
Paved way for military dictatorship.
In 1795 National Convention drafted another constitution. Only male property owners could vote now, as opposed to universal manhood suffrage. Wealthy still controlled government as they did under National Assembly.
Although Old Regime is dead, it died hard and many nobles fled to GB and Germany, plotting to overturn revolution.
They are known as "emigres."
July 12, Louis dismisses popular finance minister Jacques Necker, which increases public ire.
Executive: Branch of govt. that enforces laws
Legislative: Branch of govt. that makes laws
Judicial: Branch of govt. that interprets and applies laws
LA votes itself out of existence and needs to elect delegates to a National Convention to draft another constitution for France.
The King's death shocked other European leaders, as well as those in America.
The "Royal Catholic Army" fought against Revolutionary army.
The Jacobins, led by Georges-Jacques Danton and Robespierre, controlled the NC.
Jacobins arrested Girondins, and Charlotte Corday from Normandy, went to Paris to kill Marat. She intended to kill him at the Bastille Day parade, but it was canceled, so she went to his house on July 13 and stabbed him in his medicinal bath.