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science star project

third grade
by

Hannah Eisenberg

on 7 May 2013

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Transcript of science star project

by Hannah Eisenberg Stars How is a star born? How does a star die? What makes up the star? Important astronomers that had t do with stars The steps in a stars life What stars are in what phases? Have Fun!!! A star is born when its atoms of light are squeezed under a lot of pressure, which causes their nuclei to go through fusion. Fusion is when the hydrogen atoms become helium. After a star has reached its middle age (where our star, the sun is right now), it can not convert hydrogen into helium. When it comes to this part of its life, it may take one of many paths of life. When a star is smaller than our Sun, it becomes a white dwarf. When the star is dead, it will be called a black dwarf. If the star is larger than our Sun, it will either become a neutron star or black hole. Stars are basically big balls of exploding gas. These gasses are mostly hydrogen and helium. This gas is very hot. Hydrogen and helium are less heavy elements. Stars shine because of the hydrogen and the helium burning in their cores. Most stars have small amounts of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and iron. These are all heavier gasses. All of the elements that make up stars are recycled from older stars.

Willem Jacob Luyten is the man that made up the name white dwarf. He went to Harvard University. Sadly, he died in November 1994.

Galileo Galilei is the astronomer from the time of the Renaissance. During his time, not many people would listen to his ideas because he was going against the church. He is the man that created the telescope and discovered that there is not only one moon. Galileo went to the University of Pisa. But sadly, died on January eighth 1642. Visit this page to play a fun unscramble the words game. Its all about astronomy!!!
http://www.spellingcity.com/print-unscramble-letters-to-form-words.html?listId=3248266 Brill, Richard. "How Is a Star Born?: Scientific American." How Is a Star Born?: Scientific American. N.p., 6 Dec. 1999. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-is-a-star-born>. -"Cosmic-Ray Mystery Traced to Star-Birth Frenzy." Wired.com. 02 Nov. 2009. Conde Nast Digital. 05 May 2013 <http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/11/gamma-ray-mystery-traced-to-star-birth-frenzy/>. -"Star Death." ESA. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.esa.int/esaKIDSen/SEM976WJD1E_OurUniverse_0.html>. "Ask an Astronomer FOR KIDS!" Ask an Astronomer FOR KIDS! N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. <http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/AskKids/index.shtml>. -http://www.waldeneffect.org/blog/Primary_sources_of_energy/ youtube youtube The first step The first phase of a star is a nebula. The components of the nebula determine what the mass of the star will be for the rest of its life. If the mass is larger, then the star will take one way of life and if it is smaller it will take another path of life. Clouds of dust and gas come together from older stars that are dead; this makes a nebula. There are many different types of nebula, depending on the mass of it. Emission Nebulae show off light. Reflection Nebulas glow. For a star that is smaller than size of our sun, it may take around 10,000,000 years for a nebula to become a star, which can convert hydrogen into helium. For a star that is larger, then it may take only about 100,000 years. http://www.spacetoday.org/images/Hubble/HubbleBeauty/LagoonNebulaHeartNASA.jpg - Oak, Manali. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html>.

-Roellig, Thomas L. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/lfs/QA/Lifespan_of_a_Nebula.txt>. The second step Protostar is the next step in the stars life. When the particles in a nebula spin because of gravitational forces, they will spin faster and faster making them all go into a cloud shape. This is a protostar. A protostar may take 100,000 years to reach the middle age of its life. That would mean that by the time a star has reached the middle age, the star has been alive for about 10,100,000 years (smaller than the sun) or 200,000 years (bigger than the sun). http://spacefellowship.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/eso9948b.jpg Oak, Manali. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html>. The third step
A Main Sequence Star is when a star is at the middle point of its life. A main sequence star is about 15,000,000 degrees celsius. Nuclear fusion makes the star begin to glow. During this stage, the star will convert a lot of hydrogen into helium. This is the longest part of the lifecycle of a star. A star is in this part of its life cycle for about 50,000,000 years. http://content3.bestthinking.com/s/1/topics/500/images/25e6daf0-40a3-495c-8006-5da9e7e9b069_972.jpeg -Oak, Manali. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html>.

-"Stars - Main Sequence." Stars - Main Sequence. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 May 2013. <http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/star_life/starlife_equilibrium.html>. The fourth step
The next step in a stars life is to become a red giant. The temperatures in the core will start to slowly become hotter and hotter. Hydrogen will still be converted into helium. The hydrogen that has not been converted yet will cause the core to become unstable. Yet the temperature will still become hotter and hotter. When this has all happened, the pressure and temperature will be so high that the helium can become carbon. This causes the star to glow read. If the star has a greater mass then the star will be called a super giant. A star is usually a red giant for a few hundred thousand to a million years. After this phase mass will still determine where the star will go. -"The Transition to the Red Giant Phase for Sun-like Stars." Welcome to the Dutton E-Education Institute! N.p., n.d. Web. 01 May 2013. <https://www.e-education.psu.edu/astro801/content/l6_p2.html>.

-http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html http://d1jqu7g1y74ds1.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/betelgeuse.jpg The fifth step Oak, Manali. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html>. http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/089/cache/white-dwarfs_8996_600x450.jpg The sixth step
The next step in the stars life depends on its mass. If the mass of the star is smaller, the star will become a white dwarf. White dwarfs are very small and dense. “Astronomer Willem Jacob Luyten gave them this name.” White dwarfs consist of carbon and oxygen. A white dwarf can be compared to the mass of the sun and the volume of the earth. We are not able to know how long the white dwarf stage is because the oldest stars are in the white dwarf stage. We know that next a white dwarf will become a black dwarf but we don't know when.

The next step in a stars life is supernova. Supernovas are the explosion of a star accompanied by radiation and light. Sometimes the light from a supernova can be so bright that it can outshine an entire galaxy. A supernova is formed when the fuel in the star goes out and the iron collapses with an explosion. The supernova explosion only lasts about 100 seconds. Oak, Manali. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html>. http://d1jqu7g1y74ds1.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Cooke_Supernovae_illustration.jpg The seventh step http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRvRU2a6c24Vwu-pyjqPF8vOPaVx_Qrcaya4SsRFJNpEm_BreEtlg A star that is in the red giant phase will take another path than if they are super giants. This path is for a red giant. A neutron star will come out of a red giant. A neutron star is made when Fusion makes the helium turn into carbon. Then, because of gravity, the helium and carbon will be pulled closer together. This will make oxygen, nitrogen, and iron. The iron will start to absorb energy which will make an explosion. A neutron star is made by neutrons and is very hot and dense. A neutron star may spin fast causing it to give off light. It is unknown exactly how long this phase lasts. It may last between 100,000 to one million years. Oak, Manali. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html>.

Quarto-von-Tividar, John. Personal Interview. 3 May 2013.
The eighth step If a star has a high amount of mass, then the next step in the stars life will be a black hole. There is no nuclear fusion. The star's core will just shrink and because it is so small, it will be swallowed by its own gravity. Then it is a black hole. Nothing can pass by a black hole without getting swallowed up. A black hole will suck up anything near it. Black holes are the last phase of a star, so astronomers would not know how long the black hole phase lasts. http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTB_jIQoP5CYHTnMRbYC0h2IUo4rkLrgafFlqE-goD54SiSOmTY Oak, Manali. Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/life-cycle-of-a-star.html>. http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/luyten/luyten.jpg http://www.crystalinks.com/galileo.jpg youtube Stars really ate beautiful and very fun to learn about!!! Theses are just some of the interesting facts about stars!!! The rosette nebula is an example of a nebula.
Our Sun is in the main sequence stage of its life.
Capella is an example of a red giant and Betelgeuse is an example of a red supergiant.
SN2002dd is an example of a supernova.
Wolf 28 is an example of a white dwarf.
A Crab Nebula is an example of a neutron star.
XTE J1118+480 is an example of a black hole. "Nebulae - Crystalinks." Nebulae - Crystalinks. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013.

"Red Supergiants." Red Supergiant Stars. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013.

http://cde.nwc.edu/SCI2108/course_documents/stars/big_picture/redgiants.html

NASA's The Space Place. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2013. <http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/review/dr-marc-space/supernovas.html>.

http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/astronomy/WhiDwa.html

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/pulsars.html.

http://blackholes.stardate.org/resources/faqs/faq.php?p=black-hole-names https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQDutTvC9DfIG3JvZ5k0X5jm2EYm5k7cmdolShBLDC6apC7FbZQ http://www.imageenvision.com/150/34276-clip-art-graphic-of-an-orange-guy-character-astronomer-peering-through-the-lens-of-a-giant-telescope-by-jester-arts.jpg http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTyGUBCOber8imnGSW-7pB6JFCdiyf4Zc84Ie5S-wwPRhQeyR_jPQ
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