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Political Aspects of the

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Natasha Tunbridge

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of Political Aspects of the

Executive Summary
Olympism
Historical development
Political Aspects of the
Olympic Games

Ancient Games
Modern Games
Changing Roles
Global Impacts
Lasting Legacies
References
What has
changed
& why?
Why is it important we look at the changing roles?
There have been changes in the movement since1984:
-involving nationalism
-policies
-legislation
-rules
"Olympism was a philosophy of social reform that emphasises the role of sport in world development, international understanding, peaceful co-existence and social and moral education " (Girginov, 2010).
Established in 1894
Legacy of Olympism

1. 1st real governing body for sport
2. 1st real international governing body
3. It has succeeded in being genuinely global
in its reach
4. It has survived for over 100 years without
significant split.
Horne & Whannel (2012)
The IOC
• The procedure was amended and visits by IOC members to candidate cities abolished.
•15 active Olympic athletes, elected by their peers at the Olympic Games.
• The creation of a nominations Commission , dealing with IOC membership.
• The term of elected IOC members was set at 8 years.
• The presidential term was limited to eight years.
• The IOC was to have a maximum of 115 members.
- 15 members from IF’s 15 from the NOC’s and 70 other as individual
members.
• Retirement age for new members lowered to 70.
• The creation of the IOC Ethics Commission.
• The creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
• Greater financial transparency through the publication of financial reports on the sources and use of the Olympic Movements income.
• IOC session opened to the media for the first time.
• The creation of the IOC 2000 commission, responsible for examining the IOC and its structures.

First Record of the Ancient Games was in 776 BC
Located in Olympia, Ancient Greece
The Games were counted in Olympiad
Celebrated with a religious significance
Individual Sport
Men Only Events
The Sacred Truce
Ended in 261 AD
First modern game 1896, set in Athens
The games are hosted in a different city
16 day event
Women & Teams are able to compete
Sacred Truce changed
Not just the Olympic games anymore
Commercialism
Political - bidding process
Tourism
"Events have a range of impacts, both positive and negative, on their host communities and stakeholders. It is the task of the event manager to identify and predict these impacts and then to manage them to achieve the best outcomes for all parties, so that on balance the overall impact of the event is positive" (Bowdin, 2010)
Mexico City 1968
Salt Lake City 2002
Political Unrest
Student Protests
The mexican president was concerned about his country's political image
Already the focus of controversial aspects e.g Holding it a high altitude
Political environment of the host country
Why?
Talks with leaders of the student protests
Judge public's reaction
"political whitewash" - Tourism/ popularity with voters.
Sydney 2000
Proposal of 'The Best Games Ever'
'Green Games'
Olympic Park built on industrial wasteland
Venues to be multi-purpose facility
Home to 3 endangered ecological communities and parkland
Largest project in Australian history
10 years later, commitment still going strong
Master plan 2030
Munich 1972
Terrorist Attack by 8 Arab Terrorist on 11 Israeli Athletes
Black September Group
Insufficiently trained police force
Mark Spitz- set a gold medal record. Four Individual, 3 relay.
Why?
Poor Management
Olympic village ill-equipped
IOC has stricter criteria to protect the athletes and keep the games safe and peaceful
South Korea 1988
North and South Korea negotiations
It was stated North Korea would not live up to the ideals of a host country
Distribution of events
Boycotting from North Korea, Cuba & Ethiopia
Collapse of the Soviet Union reduced the influence the cold war and subsequent boycotts had on the games
Why?
Development of the negotiation team
International Politics
Future political negotiations
Positive
International
prestige
Improved profile
Promotion of Investment
Social cohesion
Development
of administrative
skills
Negative
“The power to deliver lasting benefits which can considerably change a community, its image and infrastructure” (IOC, 2013).
Risk of Event Failure
Mis-allocation of funds
Lack of accountability
Propogandising
Loss of community ownership &
control
Legitimation of
Ideology
(Bowdin, et al, 2011)
Olympic legacy categories - Sporting, Social, Environmental, Urban and Economic
First mention of a 'legacy', Melbourne 1956
Sydney 2000, first to embrace legacy management
London 2012 - sustainability in sport and education
Women in sport
Women in sport
"Impractical, uninteresting, unaesthetic, and incorrect" - Pierre de Coubertin
Paris 1900, women competed in the games for the first time ever
From 1991, all new sports on the olympic programme must feature women's events
Still fewer sport events for women
New organisations - 'Women's sports foundation' and 'The Women and Sport Programme'
In 1994 the IOC’s membership included 25 NOC members but only 7 IF members.
Education
International Understanding
Equal opportunities
Fair & Equal
Competitions
Cultural
expression
The Values:
Conclusion
London 2012
Sustainability
"Development that meets the needs of the present without comprimising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" -Brundtland Report 1987
The need for sustainability within legacies lead to a change in the olympic charter
Events themselves can not be sustainable, due to travel and resources
London 2012 promised to ensure there is sport within education and to 'inspire a young generation' as a country
To include the values of Olympism
Any Questions ?
The Bidding Process
Olympism and its values
The IOC and how it has developed
Ancient & Modern games and the changing roles
Positive and Negative Global Impacts
Olympic games Legacy and Sustainability
Constant changing roles within the Olympic movement
There are both positive and negative Impacts of Olympic games, which can easily turn into Legacy's
Olympics have changed from the Ancient games to create the modern games
Bowdin, G et al. (2011) Event Management. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Finley, M.I, Pleket, H.W. (1976) The Olympic Games: The First Thousand Years. London: Chatto & Windus Ltd
Girinov, V. (2010) The Olympics: A critical reader. Oxon: Routledge
Imperial College London. (2004) Boycotts [online] Available from: http://olympics.pthimon.co.uk/boycotts.htm [Accessed 10th January 2014]
British Library, (2013).Sport & Society: The Summer Olympic through the lens of the social science. [PDF].British Library. Available at: http://www.bl.uk/sportandsociety/exploresocsci/politics/articles/iocdevelopment.pdf [Accessed 12th January 2014]
Department for culture, media and sport, (2008).Before, during and after: making the most of the London 2012 games. [PDF].Department for culture, media and sport. Available at: http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/resources/olympics/2012_legacy_plan.pdf [Accessed 12th January 2014]
Department for culture, media and sport, (2010) Plans for the legacy from the2012 Olympic and Paralympic games. [PDF].Department for culture, media and sport. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78105/201210_Legacy_Publication.pdf [Accessed 12th January 2014]
Imperial College London. (2004) Terrorism [online] Political, social and economic aspects of the Olympic games. Available from: http://olympics.pthimon.co.uk/terrorism.htm [Accessed 10th January 2014]
International Olympic Committee, (2013).Factsheet women in the Olympic movement. [PDF] International Olympic Committee. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reference_documents_Factsheets/Women_in_Olympic_Movement.pdf [Accessed 12th January 2014]
International Olympic Committee, (2013).Factsheet The Olympic Movement. [PDF]. International Olympic Committee. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reference_documents_Factsheets/The_Olympic_Movement.pdf [Accessed 12th January 2014]
International Olympic Committee, (2013).Olympic Legacy. [PDF]. International Olympic Committee. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/documents/olympism_in_action/legacy/2013_booklet_legacy.pdf [Accessed 12th January 2014]
Olympic. (2013) All about the bid process [online] Olympic. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/content/the-ioc/bidding-for-the-games/all-about-the-bid-process/?newstab=key-dates [Accessed 12th January 2014]
Photo enhancements (2013) The Olympic Truce [online] Olympic-legacy.com. Available from: http://www.pe04.com/olympic/trivia/index.php [Accessed 9th January 2014]
Women’s Sports foundation (2013) women in the Olympic and Paralympic Games [online]. Available from: http://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/home/media-center-2/press-releases/april-11-2013-press-release [Accessed on 6th January 2014].
International Olympic Committee (2013) Factsheet legacies of the Games [pdf] International Olympic Committee. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reference_documents_Factsheets/Legacy.pdf [Accessed on 28th December 2013].
Sydney Olympic Park (2011) Legacy - from "the best Games ever" to today [online]. Available from: http://www.sopa.nsw.gov.au/our_park/legacy [Accessed on 28th December 2013].
Sydney Olympic Park (2011) The Future Looks Bright [online]. Available from: http://www.sopa.nsw.gov.au/our_park/legacy/the_future_looks_bright [Accessed on 28th December 2013].
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