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Land Transportation History

Black 3
by

Zack Crampton

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of Land Transportation History

History of Land Transportation By Zack Crampton & David Hill The road builders of the late 1800s depended solely on stone, gravel and sand for construction. Water would be used as a binder to give some unity to the road surface. plumas The Autobahn Then after 1939 Hitler made the next super highway the Autobahn, which is to make transporting troops, supplies, tanks, and etc, a lot easier to transport. He modeled the roads after the roman empire when they made the roads to conquer the other empires and watch troop movement and supplies. Roman roads were the beginning of making modern roads for keeping an eye on troop movements and commercial trade. The first indications of constructed roads date from about 4000 BC and consist of stone paved streets at modern-day Iraq and timber roads preserved in a swamp in Glastonbury, England. In 1862, President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Bill, which made it possible for public land and funds to build a transcontinental railroad. The meeting of the two sets of tracks the "gold spike ceremony" took place on May 10, 1869. Walking is the first mode of transportation. walking has been around since the beginning of time. We all walk everyday and it is important part of life. Now to new technology some people who can not walk have the ability to move around with some help from a pair of wheels. Bronze age disk wheel 2500BC In 3500 BC the firsts carts were invented and these vehicles where some of the first things to use wheels. Horses In 2000 BC people started using domesticated horses for transportation. This opened up a lot of jobs, and provided ways to move faster than walking. The First Public Bus The first public bus was called the OMNIBUS and was normally pulled by 2 or 3 horses.This bus was invented 1662 and this helped people see that public transportation would be a nice thing for cites and also that it may become very popular and a money making business. The Steam Engine Tomas Savary invented the crude steam engine in 1698 based off of a pressure cooker. Tomas Watt Gets most of the credit for the more modern steam engine that is used in trains. The process of inventing the steam engine took many scientist many centuries. Trains Trains Changed the way many people think as normal, during the civil war trains had a big part of who won and lost. trains and railroads used to be like superhighways and semi trucks. Internal combustion engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine (ICE) the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir. Trans Alaskan pipeline The 48-inch trans-Alaska oil pipeline is truly the man-made wonder of the Last Frontier, traversing 800 miles (or 1300 km) of frozen tundra, boreal forest, 800 rivers and streams, three major earthquake faults and three rugged mountain ranges. The corridor includes more than 550 wildlife crossings for moose, caribou and other wildlife. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company completed the pipeline in 1977 at a cost of $8 billion for the two-year project, the largest privately funded construction effort at that time. The Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) was built as a means of transporting crude oil from the oilfields at Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's North Slope to the marine and northern most ice-free port in Valdez, where it is loaded aboard tankers for the journey to U.S. refineries. During the peak of construction, over 28,000 people were employed by Alyeska and its contractors. TAPS carries approximately 15 percent of the nation's domestic oil production. The first steam car Between 1665 and 1680, Flemish Jesuit priest and astronomer Ferdinand Verbiest created plans for a miniature four-wheel unmanned steam “car” for Chinese Emperor Khang Hsi. In 1769, Frenchman Nicholas Cugnot built a steam-powered motor carriage capable of six miles per hour. In 1825, British inventor Goldsworthy Gurney built a steam car that successfully completed an 85 mile round-trip journey in ten hours time. (Steamers dominated the automotive landscape until the late 19th century.) bi*** suck Di** Running we have been running for a while it is faster than walking and it will help people evade from immediate danger we've been running for a little after walking when the first man met danger so he ran away and people run to get to a certain destination even faster that you cannot get through with a vehicle The walking machine In 1817 Baron von Drais invented a walking machine that would help him get around the royal gardens faster: two same-size in-line wheels, the front one steerable, mounted in a frame which you straddled. The device was propelled by pushing your feet against the ground, thus rolling yourself and the device forward in a sort of gliding walk. The machine became known as the Draisienne or hobby horse. It was made entirely of wood. This enjoyed a short lived popularity as a fad, not being practical for transportation in any other place than a well maintained pathway such as in a park
or garden. The first bicycle In 1865, when pedals were applied directly to the front wheel. This machine was known as the velocipede ("fast foot"), but was popularly known as the bone shaker, since it was also made entirely of wood, then later with metal tires, and the combination of these with the cobblestone roads of the day made for an extremely uncomfortable ride. They also became a fad, and indoor riding academies, similar to roller rinks, could be found in large cities. It was the really first bicycle. The first sewage system 4000B.C. Eshnunna/Babylonia - Mesopotamian Empire (Iraq)
Certain liquid wastes drained to area(s) either under or outside of buildings/homes.
Had stormwater drain systems in the streets; drains were constructed of sun-baked bricks or cut stone. Some homes were connected. [The need for proper disposal of human wastes was not fully understood -- but there was a recognition of some of the benefits (less odor, etc.) of taking these wastes away from homes.]
In Babylon, in some of the larger homes, people squatted over an opening in the floor of a small interior room. The wastes fell through the opening into a perforated cesspool located under the house. Those cesspools were often made of baked perforated clay rings -- ranging in size from 18" to 36" in diameter -- stacked atop each other. Smaller homes often had smaller cesspools (18" diameter); larger homes ... more people ... had larger diameter cesspools. The annular space (1') outside of the cesspools' walls were often filled with pieces of broken pottery to better the percolation rates. Scotland 3200 B.C. The Orkney Islands are the location of excavations that show early drainage systems. First lavatory-like plumbing systems were fitted into recesses in the walls of homes -- with drained outlets. First Electric Car Thomas Davenport and Scotsmen Robert Davidson around 1842. Both inventors were the first to use the newly invented but non-rechargeable electric cells or batteries. It was not until 1895 that Americans began to devote attention to electric vehicles after an electric tricycle was built by A. L. Ryker and William Morrison built a six-passenger wagon both in 1891. First Automatic Transmission GM introduced the industry’s first fully automatic transmission, called Hydra-Matic, on the 1940 Oldsmobile. All you had to do was turn on the car select drive and step on the gas. WHEEL First Wheel dates back to 3500BC Everything has wheels now
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