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Compounds,Elements and Mixtures
Transcript of Compounds,Elements and Mixtures
What is an Element?
An element is the smallest substance possible. There are about a hundred elements all of which are listed on the periodic table. The particles that make up elements are called atoms. The word atom comes from the Greek word 'atomos' which means indivisible.
Mixtures are two or more substances that are mixed together without a chemical reaction taking place. For example sea water is a mixture water and salt. Concrete is a mixture of sand, cement, water and stones. The most common mixture is Air which is a mixture of 78% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and 1% noble gasses and 0.05% carbondioxide.
a thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture: the air smelled like a compound of diesel and gasoline fumes.
Elements are made up of only one type of atom. Each atom contains protons, neutrons and electrons. On the periodic table, the element are listed according to their atomic number.
An atomic number means the amount of protons in the element. Highest atomic number is Ununoctium which has an atomic number of 118. In the periodic table, the elements are divided into groups. There are eight groups and the elements in each group will be similar. They are also listed in periods which are the horizontal rows.
All about the periodic table
When was it made?
The periodic table was gathered and formatted in the way we know it in 1869 by a Russian chemist called Dimitri Mendeleev.
Elements can be categorized into solids liquids and gasses. For example Oxygen is shown as 'O', Carbon is listed as 'C', Magnesium is listed as Mg and Helium is listed as 'He'.
A compound occurs whenever two different elements chemically join. The new substance will be completely different to the primary state which eventually reacted to form the compound.
Some examples of compounds:
CO2= Carbon Dioxide
HCl= Hydrochloric acid
NaCl= Sodium Chloride
CaCO3= Calcium Carbonate
Most plastics are compounds made up of the elements Carbon and Hydrogen. Glass is also a compound made up of Silica and Oxygen.
How are these all different?
Exploring Science 8, Pearson Longman. 2008
ISEB revision guide, by Richard Balding 2011
They are all different because compounds