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The Harlem Renaissance in Historical Perspective

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by

Lauren Kientz Anderson

on 31 October 2016

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Transcript of The Harlem Renaissance in Historical Perspective

Pushed (and hemmed) by racialized terror lynchings
Treatment of veterans
Race Riots post-war: 27 cities and towns
Chicago, Knoxville, East St. Louis, Houston, Elaine Arkansas, Washington DC, Philadelphia
Red Summer, 1919
If We Must Die
By Claude McKay (1919)
If we must die—let it not be like hogs
Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,
While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,
Making their mock at our accursed lot.
If we must die—oh, let us nobly die,
So that our precious blood may not be shed
In vain; then even the monsters we defy
Shall be constrained to honor us though dead!
Oh, Kinsmen! We must meet the common foe;
Though far outnumbered, let us show us brave,
And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!
What though before us lies the open grave?
Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!
What do these two kinds of movement have to do with each other?
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series
Real Estate
Marcus Garvey
The Vibe
What Made Harlem Unique?
African Americans in Manhattan
1890--20,312
1900--36,346
1910--60,534
1920--109,153
1930--224,670
United Negro Improvement Association
Dignity and connection of all people of African descent
Black businesses
1924 UNIA Parade
"Casting about for direction, the tall newcomer’s glance caught inevitably on the most conspicuous thing in sight, a magnificent figure in blue that stood in the middle of the crossing and blew a whistle and waved great white-gloved hands. The Southern Negro’s eyes opened wide; his mouth opened wider....For there stood a handsome brass-buttoned giant directing the heaviest traffic Gillis had ever seen; ... holding them at bay with one hand while he swept similar tons peremptorily on with the other; ruling the wide crossing with supreme self-assurance. And he, too, was a Negro!"
Rudolph Fisher, "City of Refuge", 1925
All of which brought about the "New Negro" Renaissance
Literature
Art
NAACP
Urban League
Speakeasies, Jazz and the Blues
White Fascination
artistic salons and rent parties
Mabel Dwight, Harlem Rent Party 1929
Cotton Club--black performers, white audience
Savoy Ballroom, opened late 1920s
very early integrated space
Carl Van Vechten
Patrons
Charlotte Mason
Celebrated the
"primitive"
Short Stories
Poetry
Novels
Langston Hughes
Countee Cullen
Zora Neale Hurston
Contributions
Journal--The Crisis
Anti-lynching legislation campaign (1920s-1930s)
Civil Rights and Court Cases
W.E.B. Du Bois
Contributions
Journal--Opportunity
Aid to new immigrants
Jobs
Urban Manners
Paris!
Palmer Hayden
The Urban Explosion:
The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance

by
Lauren L. Anderson
Luther College

A'Lelia Walker
Dark Tower
Untitled (The Carousel Wharf)
Nous Quatre a Paris (We Four in Paris)
Alain Locke (ed), _The New Negro:
Voices of the Harlem Renaissance_ 1925
The "old Negro"--
Conclusions
Why did they leave?
The Savoy Ballroom, 1940s
The Great Migration was one of the largest migrations of people in US history. African Americans became overwhelmingly urban.
African Americans began to fight back against violence as a tool of political control.
The "New Negro" Renaissance represented an instance of that fighting back, through the use of art.

Now, how do you think the two images of movement at the beginning are connected?

Compare
Pulled
WWI Industrial needs
Family networks
tales of the North in black newspapers
Full transcript