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The Harlem Renaissance in Historical Perspective
Transcript of The Harlem Renaissance in Historical Perspective
WWI Industrial needs
tales of the North in black newspapers Treatment of veterans
Race Riots post-war: 27 cities and towns
Chicago, Knoxville, East St. Louis, Houston, Elaine Arkansas, Washington DC, Philadelphia Red Summer, 1919 If We Must Die By Claude McKay (1919) If we must die—let it not be like hogs
Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,
While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,
Making their mock at our accursed lot.
If we must die—oh, let us nobly die,
So that our precious blood may not be shed
In vain; then even the monsters we defy
Shall be constrained to honor us though dead!
Oh, Kinsmen! We must meet the common foe;
Though far outnumbered, let us show us brave,
And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!
What though before us lies the open grave?
Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back! What do these two kinds of movement have to do with each other? Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series Real Estate
The Vibe What Made Harlem Unique? African Americans in Manhattan
1930--224,670 United Negro Improvement Association
Dignity and connection of all people of African descent
Black businesses 1924 UNIA Parade "Casting about for direction, the tall newcomer’s glance caught inevitably on the most conspicuous thing in sight, a magnificent figure in blue that stood in the middle of the crossing and blew a whistle and waved great white-gloved hands. The Southern Negro’s eyes opened wide; his mouth opened wider....For there stood a handsome brass-buttoned giant directing the heaviest traffic Gillis had ever seen; ... holding them at bay with one hand while he swept similar tons peremptorily on with the other; ruling the wide crossing with supreme self-assurance. And he, too, was a Negro!" Rudolph Fisher, "City of Refuge", 1925 All of which brought about the "New Negro" Renaissance Literature
Speakeasies, Jazz and the Blues
artistic salons and rent parties Mabel Dwight, Harlem Rent Party 1929 Cotton Club--black performers, white audience Savoy Ballroom, opened late 1920s
very early integrated space Carl Van Vechten Patrons Charlotte Mason
"primitive" Short Stories
Novels Langston Hughes Countee Cullen Zora Neale Hurston Contributions Journal--The Crisis
Anti-lynching legislation campaign (1920s-1930s)
Civil Rights and Court Cases
W.E.B. Du Bois Contributions Journal--Opportunity
Aid to new immigrants
Urban Manners Paris! Palmer Hayden The Urban Explosion:
The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance by Lauren Kientz Anderson A'Lelia Walker
Dark Tower Untitled (The Carousel Wharf) Nous Quatre a Paris (We Four in Paris) Alain Locke (ed), _The New Negro:
Voices of the Harlem Renaissance_ 1925 The "old Negro"-- Conclusions Why did they leave? The Savoy Ballroom, 1940s The Great Migration was one of the largest migrations of people in US history. African Americans became overwhelmingly urban.
African Americans began to fight back against violence as a tool of political control.
The "New Negro" Renaissance represented an instance of that fighting back, through the use of art.
Now, how do you think the two images of movement at the beginning are connected? Compare