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String Theory

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by

Henry Wallace

on 24 May 2014

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Transcript of String Theory

Centripetal Force
Angular Momentum
String Theory
The Theory of Everything
Let's start with the Big Picture...
String Theory... generalized:
Everything in the entire Universe - all matter, all energy, and literally everything in every dimension - is made up of one dimensional 'strings'
The string's properties and it's motion determine what it is
Now we can begin our Journey to Understanding String Theory...
Strings Are:
Different Lengths
Open / Closed
torus
This Theory's goal is to connect General Relativity with Quantum Theory
Vibrating
Provides for different characteristics
Applications
Wavelength and Frequency
Gravitation
Centripetal Force of a String
F = mV /r
c
t
2
If 2 oscillating strings are interpreted as quarks, and those quarks, each with a mass of 3.559 x 10 kg, are held together as a meson via gravity, and that meson has a radius of 6.626 x 10 m and a tangential velocity is 2.6 x 10 , what is the Centripetal Force?
-30
-32
7
F = 2 x (3.559 x 10 ) x (2.6 x 10 ) / 6.626 x 10
-30
7
-32
c
Meson
m
V
r
2
What would the new Centripetal Force be if the tangential velocity was doubled?
Answer: 7.262 x 10 N
16
Answer: 2.905 x 10 N
17
Angular Momentum of a String
L
=
m
x
v
x
r
Meson
If 2 oscillating strings are interpreted as quarks, and those quarks, each with a mass of 3.559 x 10 kg, are held together as a meson via gravity, and that meson has a radius of 6.626 x 10 m, a tangential velocity of 2.6 x 10 m/s, what is the Angular Momentum of one quark?
-30
-32
7
L = 3.559 x 10 x 2.6 x 10 x 6.626 x 10
-30
7
-32
m
v
r
Answer: 6.131 x 10 J s
-54
What is the Angular Momentum if the tangential velocity is halved?
Answer: 3.066 x 10 J s
-54
Wavelength and Frequency of a String
ν = c / λ
If a string acting as a photon of light has a wavelength of 6.00 x 10 m, what is its frequency?
-8
ν = 3.0 x 10 m/s / 6.00 x 10 m
ν = c / λ
8
-8
Answer: 5.0 x 10 Hz
What would the frequency be if the wavelength doubled?
Gravitation of Strings
F = G x (m x m ) / r
g
1
2
2
r = 6.626 x 10
-32
m = 3.559 x 10
-30
Two strings are seen as quarks, and those quarks, each with identical mass, are held together via gravity. Using the diagram pictured, what is the Force of gravitation between the two quarks?
F = 6.67 x 10 x ( 3.559 x 10 ) / (6.626 x 10 )
g
-11
-30
-32
2
2
Answer: 1.924 x 10 N
-7
What would the Force of gravitation be if the radius was twice as long?
Answer: 4.810 x 10 N
-8
(4x weaker)
(1/2x frequency)
(1/2x Momentum)
(4x Force)
What you will learn:
Centripetal Force
Angular Momentum
Wavelength and Frequency
Gravity
How
Applies to Strings
Tangential Velocity and Force have a Direct Exponential Relationship
Tangential Velocity and Angular Momentum have a Direct Relationship
Radius and Gravitational Force have an Inverse Exponential Relationship
History:
1921: Kaluza-Klein Theory
1970: String Theory
1971: Supersymmetry
1974: Gravitons
1976: Supergravity
1980: Superstrings
1984: The Big Year
1991-1995: Duality Revolution
1996: Black Hole Entropy
-15
Answer: 2.5 x 10 Hz
-15
Wavelength and Frequency are Inversely Proportional
Full transcript