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Sustainable urban planning

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hind ali

on 24 December 2012

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Transcript of Sustainable urban planning

Introduction: A sustainable city, or eco-city is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO2,methane and water pollution. Eco-city theory focuses on adjusting the relationship between city and nature.  Introduction What are the Principles of Green Urbanism? Why the world is heading towards the sustainability city? How the sustainability of a city is measured? EXAMPLES presiation outlet Urban design
Social sustainably
Ecological city theory
health and walk ability
Mobility, public transport
Mixed land use
Housing affordability
reducing car dependency
subdivisions Urban water management
water recycling
Urban farming
Urban landscape
Gray water recycling
storage of urban storm water
Climate change impact management Embodied Energy
Material specification
Supply chain
Rena bile energy solutions
Energy sources & consumption
Construction systems
Prefabrication & recycling
Energy effiency
Resource management Water and biodiversity Energy & materials Urban planning & transport Interaction between the three pillars The majority of scientist world wide agreed that global worming is now taking place and mostly it could have serious consequences for all life on planet. as the world becomes more urbanized ,this fonemine grows. Why the world is heading towards the sustainability city? Cities and developers can create sustainable energy systems that increase asset value. This includes :
 1)lowering costs by improving asset utilization
2)providing secure power to critical facilities
3)improving esthetics
4)utilizing generation sources with a lower emissions and carbon footprint. How the sustainability of a city is measured? Examples is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Paraná. Was founded in 29 March 1693 ,Curitiba is a cultural, political, and economic centre in the country and in Latin America. in 2010 was awarded the Globe Sustainable City Award, given to cities and municipalities which excel in sustainable urban development around the world. According to the US magazine Reader's Digest, Curitiba is the best "Brazilian Big City" in which to live. 1.Curitiba: Curitiba's Bus System: By the 1970’s ,the city was filled with cars as a result of the growing population. The government knew the solution was with public transport.
But how to make it work in poor cash city? The bus system of Curitiba, Brazil, exemplifies a model Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, and plays a large part in making this a livable city. The buses run frequently—some as often as every 60 seconds—and reliably, and the stations are convenient, well-designed, comfortable, and attractive. Consequently, Curitiba has one of the most heavily used, yet low-cost, transit systems in the world. It all started with one man and a simple idea: prioritizing people over cars  Jaime Lerner was an insprent student of architecture and town planning when he became the mayor of curtubi in the late 70’s.When he took office, he was confronted with a plan to demolish old buildings and widened the main city’s street to cope with increase traffic. In what was in popular move,lerner did the opposite of what have been suggested: paving the streets and closing the terrafic,creating brazil first pedestrian mall, the street of flowers which expanded over 15 city blocks Lerner created 8 main traffic parts, each with 3 roads: one leading into the city, one out of the city and a central road with two-way traffic with bus –only use, to speed passenger in and out of the center.
He used Articulated bus to accommodate the largest amount of people possible. Starting with 25000 passenger, and now they transport more then 2 million passenger. It’s one of the few systems in the world.
His system can transport more passengers then the subway, with two time less expensive cost then the subway. he came up with a design which was the final touch to his revulsion system: the glass boarding tubes. His fist sketches of the design was on a napkin on an airplane. Flooding was one of the most serious problems that Curitiba faced. The city center used to have frequent floods that were worsened by the construction of houses and other structures along stream and river basins. In addition, during the 1950s and 1960s, many streams were covered and converted into artificial underground canals that made drainage more difficult. Necessary drainage works had to be dug underground at a very high cost. At the same time, new developments on the periphery of the city were being constructed without proper attention to drainage. every 100 meter of this concreting work will cost the city the equivalent of building one school! to let the river run and flud into the surrounding parklands, such as pargui park which run across the river and spends the area of 1.4 million km with 100% natural plants surrounding it .It’s also biologically sound because of the fishes around the river.Curitiba now has 4 time the recommended amount of green space per inhabited. but with all that grass growing in the parks, who will cleans them?! Nakamria had to come up with a creative solution to maintained the beauty of these park
trimming the grass in the parks and making it clean is the best way using the sheep. as it’s cheaper than lawnmowers. With a network of almost 30 parks and urban forested areas, Curitiba is the greenest capital in southern Brazil. Back in 1970, each of the city's inhabitants had less than 1 m² of green area. A goal-directed effort has since boosted this area to 52 m² per inhabitant and the city is still actively improving its natural environment Children can exchange reusable waste with school articles, chocolate, toys and tickets to entertainment events. The project results in less household waste in the streets as well as in sensitive areas such as rivers and parks. In combination with other initiatives, 70% of Curitiba's waste is recycled by the city's inhabitants. The city's recycling of paper alone accounts for the equivalent of 1,200 trees a day. Curitiba has the highest recycling rate in the World – 70%.The city has succeeded in introducing a Green Exchange employment programmed to the benefit of the environment and socially deprived groups(slums). Low income families living in the faceless, shantytowns out of reach of the city's dustcarts, can exchange their rubbish bags for bus tickets and food. There are 3 main issues that are being important for society:
Identity. In 1976, the city adopted a Slum Relocation Plan to assist low-income families. The Public Housing Company of Curitiba built low-income housing near the center of the city instead of far away from the center, which is typical of US cities as well as major cities around the world. A genuine concern in looking at the problems and talking to the people, at any level of decision, provides an insight, which is seldom self-evident at the drawing table. 2.Hammarby Sjöstad:  Hammary: Sea City or Hammarby Lake City) is a part of Stockholm municipality,sweden. currently undergoing major urban redevelopment. The water has inspired the name of the entire project – the town around the lake Hammarby Sjö. The first drawings of what would become Hammarby Sjöstad were penciled in back in 1990. Once fully built, Hammarby Sjöstad will have 11,000 residential units for just over 15,000 people and a total of about 35,000 people will live and work in the area. Hammarby Sjöstad will be fully built by 2015. N Conserving nature and creating new green public spaces: An avenue linking the city district’s new green
public spaces and forming green corridors runs all the way through the southern part of Hammarby Sjöstad.The parks to the south of Hammarby Sjö are all linked to the major green public spaces of the Nacka nature reserve and Årsta forest, and form green wedges into the heart of Hammarby Sjöstad. The Nacka nature reserve is linked to the town area by means of conducts – planted viaducts – over the Södra Länken highway. New parks in northern Hammarby Sjöstad have been linked up with the Vita berg park and the Stora Blackthorn park. Footer text here (24) Infrastructure for transportation: (24) http://urbantimes.co Substantial investments have been made in public transport in the area, both in the form of the new light rail link “Tvärbanan” and bus
traffic. Public transport has a central route running through Sjöstaden, with four stops along the avenue that connects one side of the city district to the other. Sjöstaden has ferry links. The ferry, which traffics Hammarby Sjö between the southern and northern sides of Sjöstaden, is run by the City of Stockholm and is free to use. The ferry runs 365 days of the year from early in the morning to late at night. (25) (25) http://urbantimes.co High Recycle Rates: One of the main objective of the new city is to reduce the heavy traffic in the area, particularly the waste traffic collection.
waste is collected via a network of underground pipes to central points for collection using the garbage disposal system. The waste is separated into different chutes for the stationary system. The various fractions are then transported by vacuum to containers in a central collection station. So it was decided to have an underground waste transportation system. the system three different types of waste in underground network of pipes.
Organic food waste in the green inlet.
rest fraction in the yellow inlet.
Paper in the blue inlet. “you really can’t have a green economy or sustainable economy without intelligent infrastrture & intelligent population.” Louis Zacharilla Director of Development, Intelligent Community Forum  * Building material: (*) Galvanised: is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, in order to prevent rusting. Eco-inspections:
Everyone who builds in Hammarby Sjöstad must check and declare their chemical products and construction materials before work on their project begins, and eco-inspections are conducted regularly throughout the construction process. Rainwater must not be contaminated with metals or oils en route to Hammarby Sjö,which is why facade or roofing materials that could release heavy metals or other hazardous substances have been avoided, and why eco-friendly oil has been used for the footpaths along Sickla Canal and stainless steel has been used for the cycle bridge. Environmental consideration is the key for all of the materials used. This applies both to the visible materials used in the facades and on the ground as well as to the materials used in the internal parts of the buildings – their shells, installations and equipment. The guiding principle throughout has been to use tried and tested, sustainable materials and ecocertified products, and to avoid any use of chemical products or construction materials that contain hazardous substances. the area’s residents will
produce half of all the energy they need. They
will do this by utilizing the energy present in
treated wastewater and the energy to be
found in the sorted-at-source combustible
waste. Solar energy is utilised through solar cells on roofs and walls, and converted
into electrical energy. Natural sources systems & the use of technology: (26) (26) http://urbantimes.co Distract cooling:
Stockholm’s focus on centralized production of district heating and district cooling makes the city a world leader in this field. District cooling in Stockholm has developed over a decade into the world’s largest system of its kind. From the cooled and treated wastewater that leaves the Hammarby plant’s heat pumps, heat is exchanged into cooling in the water that circulates in the district cooling network in Hammarby Sjöstad. Cooling is, in other words, purely and simply a waste product from the production of district heating. District heating:
The Högdalen combined heat and power
plant uses sorted, combustible waste as an
energy source (fuel) to produce electricity and district heating. Renewable energy sources are used wherever possible in order to spare the environment. Another example of sustainable heat supply is the Hammarby heat plant which extracts waste heat from the treated wastewater from the Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant. the Hammarby
plant Högdalen combined heat
and power plant. (27) Hammarby Sjöstad’s experimental treatment
plant, Sjöstadsverket, is evaluating new
wastewater treatment technology. (27) http://urbantimes.co with great care when it comes to the choice of construction and building materials, and the processing of wastewater and refuse, for example. By avoiding the use of certain metals and plastics in the buildings, by ensuring that rainwater and snowmelt are treated and drained separately, and by providing residents with information, e.g. the importance of eco-labeled household chemicals, we can ensure that households’
wastewater is relatively clean The wastewater that goes to the local wastewater treatment plant comes solely from housing in the area, and does not come from storm water and industries. This means that right from the start, the wastewater contains a minimum of contaminants, which makes it easier for us to treat it and for the nutrients it contains to be reclaimed and, hopefully, be reusable on agricultural land. New technology is being used as part of exciting development projects in Hammarby Sjöstad, e.g. as fuel cells, solar cells, and solar panels. The purpose is partly to test the new technology and partly to demonstrate methods of building a sustainable city. dsfefglykkk The Hammarby model – a unique eco-cycle:
The integrated environmental solutions can be followed through an eco-cycle that has become known as the Hammarby model. The eco-cycle handles energy, waste, water and sewage for housing, offices and other commercial activities in Hammarby Sjöstad. The eco-cycle is also designed to act as a role model for the development of equivalent technological systems in big cities. The Hammarby model is shown on the inside of the front cover, along with explanatory texts, and the various sections of the cycle – namely energy, water & sewage, and waste .(28) (28) http://www.hammarbysjostad.se creativity proved that there could be a sustainable solution for each set of problems usually found in fast-growing cities worldwide. A combination of public-private partnerships, transparency and participation was promoted in the development of equations of co-responsibility. The experience of Curitiba & Hammarby Sjöstad demonstrates that solutions, not only problems, can be seen in an integrated way. Conclusion Cities can and must become the most environmentally-friendly model for inhabiting our earth.It is more important than ever to re-conceptualize existing cities and their systems of infrastructure, to be compact, mixed-use and polycentric cities. There can be an integrated and environmentally sensitive action plan for each set of problems. Solutions within any city are not specific and isolated but interconnected. The action plan should involve partnerships between responsible actors such as private sector entrepreneurs, nongovernmental organizations, municipal agencies, utilities, neighborhood associations, community groups, and individuals. Done by:
Hind Ali
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