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Body Language TOK
Transcript of Body Language TOK
Emotions & Expressions
Lies Vs. The Truth
Modern studies of body language, developed by Paul Ekman, indicate that there are 10 human emotions:
Pride in achievement
By: Nawar, Christina, Frieda, and Brigid
What is Lying?
Body language is a form of non-verbal communication.
It consists of body posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye movements.
James Borg, a leading expert on body language, states that human communication consists of 93 percent body language and non-verbal cues, while only 7 percent of communication consists of actual words
Body language can provide clues to the attitude or state of mind of a person. For example, it can indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, a relaxed state, pleasure, amusement, and intoxication, among others.
Verbal language is what humans use to speak to each other without the use of body parts.
Most specialists agree that deception is easy in verbal language compared to body language.
-Amusement: Smiling, laughter, and extended eye contact with the object/person
Humans send and interpret these signals almost entirely subconsciously.
-Anger/Contempt: The use of a half smile, looking away from the object/person
-Contentment (Happiness): Relaxed body, fluid movement, person seems happy or unconcerned, steady and slower breathing which may make the voice a little lower than usual.
-Excitement: Rubbing palms against each other, clapping hands, head tilting forward, and crossing fingers.
-Guilt: Looking up usually means that you are trying to think of something to say, and looking down means you are lying. Crossing arms, covering mouth, face, neck, or torso, blinking or looking away, biting your lip or chewing the inside of your cheek
-Pride: Raising hands or clenched fists in the air, throwing back heads and outstretching arms.
-Relief: Lowering of shoulders and eyebrows as well a slight shaking of the legs.
-Shame: Gaze and head downward, eyebrows knitted together, one or both hands used to hide the face completely.
To lie is to intentionally tell a false statement.
-Sensory Pleasure: Bending of shoulders, long grins, raising eyebrows, and gasping.
Around age 2 or 3, children realize that they're not under constant observation by an all-knowing, all-seeing Eye of Truth.
A typical 4-year-old stretches the truth once every two hours, while 6-year-olds will tell a whopper every 90 minutes
Lying to yourself and not acknowledging your accomplishments.
1. "One can lie outright about the past"
2. "Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions."
3. "[...] mentions the truth quickly and goes on to other things more important [...]"
With only little information on the topic you make other people believe you know more.
Lies in History
A small electronically sent lie used to politely start or end a conversation.
Lying to protect a third party.
Only the basic ideas are true, but they are stretched to seem more dramatic.
Lying in Trade:
A company will advertise untrue facts about a product to gain sales.
A statement that is known to be false to both parties but said to be polite.
Harmless lies that are thought to be used for the greater good.
According to Howard Zinn's A People's History of the United States, there are three kinds of historical lies:
Body Language of Lying
-Micro expressions are quick flashes that reveal the true emotion of a person.
-People tend to touch or scratch the nose or behind the ears more when lying.
-When people are making up a lie on the spot, they try to buy more time by repeating the question and constantly blinking.
-A liar will be more likely to lean backward, a sign of not wanting to allow more information than is necessary.
-When a person lies, they may swallow, gulp or clear their throat to relieve the built up tension.
• Liars don't make direct statements. They imply answers instead of denying something directly.
Verbal Language of Lying
• A liar will use the words of the question to make an answer.
•A statement with a contraction is more likely to be truthful.
• A guilty person speaks more than is normal, adding unnecessary details to convince you.
They are not comfortable with silence or pauses in the conversation.
• A liar may leave out pronouns and speak in a monotonous tone.
• Words are garbled and spoken softly, and syntax and grammar may be off. His sentences will be muddled rather than emphasized.
• The use of distancing language.
• If you think someone is lying, change subject of the conversation quickly, a liar follows along willingly and becomes more relaxed.
• Using humor or sarcasm to avoid a subject
-The timing and duration of emotional gestures and emotions are not at a normal pace.
-Timing is off between emotions gestures/expressions and words.
-Gestures/expressions don’t match the verbal statement.
-Expressions are limited to mouth movements when someone is faking emotions (like happy, surprised, sad, or in awe) instead of the whole face.
-A guilty person will get defensive while an innocent person will often go on the offensive.
-A liar is uncomfortable facing his questioner/accuser and may turn his head or body away.
-They might unconsciously place objects (book, coffee cup, etc.) between themselves and the questioner/accuser.
-A lying person is more likely to cover or place their hands near the mouth, almost as if to cover the lies coming forth.
-They avoid eye contact
-Their movement will either be limited and stiff as they try to take up as little space as possible or excessively fidgety and obvious..
Koko the Gorilla
She once tore a sink out of her wall and blamed it on her pet kitten.
Babies will fake a cry, pause, and then continue if they do not get the attention they want.
At age 1, we learn concealment, and at age 2, we learn to bluff.
At 5 years old, we learn to lie outright, and at 9 years old, we learn to cover up events.
Pushing himself away from the podium
Not looking straight into the audience
Hand gestures to the side and not to the general public.
Constant moving of the head
Crossing hands at the end
Constantly scanning the room, as if looking for people who are onto him
Use of formal, distant language
Looking away from the camera.
Pointing away from the camera
Repeating same words over and over again.
Shoulders are tense.
This is a basis for a theory that claims that the more a certain species advances the more likely they are to deceive.
Koko the gorilla was taught sign language as a means to communicate with other people as a part of a scientific experiment to study animal communication
"No mortal can keep a secret. If the lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore."
College students lie to their mothers in 1 out of every 5 interactions.
Lies in Advertising
The "One A Day" men's health pills claimed that taking one a day would cure, treat, and prevent a multitude of diseases, including cancer.
After much research and many studies, the vitamins in the pills that the drug company were claiming to be beneficial, were actually causing a mysterious outbreak of diabetes.
The company had to pay $3.3 million to the states that pressed charges and is now, more so than before, required to back every claim with sufficient scientific evidence.
-This is Dominique Strauss-Kahn with President Obama right after the emergence of the Strauss-Kahn sex scandal in New York.
-Obama is chattering with his fingertips in this photo since he is moving his hand in the direction of Dominique Strauss-Kahn
Fear of rejection: Sometimes, our insecurities are the foundation of why we lie to each other, because we want to be remain popular in our relationships. Typically, it is harmless boasting to make ourselves appear more admirable to other people.
Fear of loss: This is usually the loss of personal objects, such as money or expensive valuables. Greed is the foundation for this reason and can be found in each of us. We often lie to make ourselves more desirable to other people too. Most common, people lie for fear of losing an opportunity to have sex. Other times, when our self esteem starts to decline, we even lie to ourselves as means to prevent loss of morale.
Altruistic Reasons: We often lie to help our friends and loved ones. How often do we flattery someone just to make them feel better? This is the only selfless reason why we lie.
Fear of harm: The easiest reason to understand why we lie is for self protection, including self deception, to prevent harm to ourselves. This harm can be either physical or mental.
Fear of conflict: To some degree, we all fear having an argument.
Fear of punishment: When growing up, how often did we lie about how well we did in school, or who started a fight? How often do we cover up our mistakes and transgressions?