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Iain Cromarty

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Constructivism

Experience Enquiry-based Learning Problem-based Learning Constructive Apprenticeship Vygotsky Bruner Reflection Dialogue "The situation has become so confusing that to be told that a particular individual is a 'constructivist' is to acquire no useful information whatsoever." Phillips (1997) Knowledge is constructed, not received Discuss in groups for 10 minutes
Present your thoughts
True or False?
Give examples Constructivism

Medical Education DemonDeLuxe (Dominique Toussaint) Malene Thyssen, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Malene What do you know about this? take 5 minutes and write down everything you can think of as you go, group this knowledge depending on where you got it:
were you taught?
did you learn?
did you invent it? Jasper Goslicki What do you know about this? take 5 minutes and write down everything you can think of then group this knowledge depending on where you got it:
were you taught?
did you learn?
or something else? What do you know about this? take a couple of minutes and write down everything you can think of as you go, group this knowledge depending on where you got it:
were you taught?
did you learn?
did you invent it? then discuss with others to develop your knowledge Philosophy Spectrum Themes: Active Order Self Social - Symbolic Lifelong Development we are active agents in gaining of experience and learning. our activity is devoted largely to ordering processes, sorting our experiences into patterns, finding meaning this ordering is self-referential, we place ourselves at the centre of our experience but we are embedded in social and symbolic relationships that must be considered if we are to be understood And all of this activity continues lifelong, we never achieve completeness. So constructivists view the human experience as a personal ceaseless search for meaning and order in a sea of complex and changing relationships Learning Teaching Individual Constructivist Ernst von Glasersfeld General Orientation Social Constructivist Psychological Constructivist How is my knowledge constructed? How can the validity of my knowledge be assessed? How do culture and context influence my knowledge? How can a body of knowledge be developed and justified? Knowledge comes from experience... Perceived through our senses... Conceptualized in our minds... To what extent is there an objective reality? but does reality instruct or constrain? does discussion instruct or constrain? does the outside contribute to building understanding
or set rational limits to that which has been built internally? Do we
(individually and as a society)
invent or discover
knowledge? "Moving from theory to practice always presents challenges... ...but when there are multiple brands of the theory, the task becomes that much more demanding." Murphy (1997) Consider how people of different centuries, culture and religion might answer this question.... Zenodot Verlagsgesellschaft mbH This painting illustrates a general overview of the treatment process as it is outlined in the Root Tantra. Treatment can begin after humoural imbalance has been assessed through the diagnosis process (tk 3.) The four trunks of the tree (from left to right) correspond respectively to counsel on diet, guidance on conduct, appropriate medicinal treatments and external physical therapies.
For the sake of an example, this presentation will go in-depth on counsel of diet, and examine the role that the three humors play in this treatment. The dietary trunk of the treatment thangka diverges into six blue, yellow and white branches. Each colour indicates the humoral imbalance to which it relates.

The blue branches correspond to food and drink which balance rlung (wind). These foods are generally "oily and nutritious foods." Seed oil, garlic and human, donkey, marmot and horse flesh are some of foods shown in the rlung leaves.

The yellow branches depict food and drink to alleviate mkhris-pa (bile) imbalance. Generally these foods are "cool and light." Fresh butter, dandelion leaves and seeds, warm water and goat, veal, and deer meat are all shown on the yellow leaves.

Finally, the white leaves and branches illustrate food and drink for bad-kan (phlegm) imbalance, which is rebalanced through the application of a “warming diet." Honey, boiled water, fish, mutton, and beast and yak meat are shown on the white leaves indicating their bad-kan balancing properties. In total, there are six branches with 35 leaves on the dietary trunk of the treatment tree, each illustrating a food or drink used for rebalancing the humors.

Sources and Further Reading: Averdon: pg 110

Old: pg 75-78
1653-1705 So how can there be a constructivist theory of learning? What it isn't: Not behaviourist: not interested in changing behaviour
the mind is not an empty vessel
uniform inputs do not lead to predictable changes in behaviour
learning is not passive Not objectivist: reliable, fixed knowledge about the world does not exist
learning therefore cannot be assimilation of objective reality
so teachers cannot transfer meanings to students Different authors emphasise different aspects depending on their viewpoint but, by and large, generally speaking they agree on: be a guide and facilitator not a fount of all knowledge introduce ideas and tools
observe, diagnose and adjust Knowledge, personal and societal, is provisional, incomplete and changing.
science is viewed as systems with models that describe what might be not what is
validity of knowledge comes from accuracy of predictions, not descriptions Learning must be circumspect and reflexive, there is no direct route to truth Learning concerns not just cognitions but beliefs, and concepts of knowledge Our knowledge of others' realities is, at best, and even after lots of dialogue, an approximation. The focus of learning is the process not the product:
the process is that of building meaningful models, making sense of the world - not of arriving at 'the truth' Multiple realities, truths and perspectives are not just allowed but are expected. Arghh! So a constructivist theory of learning necessarily has multiple facets, variants, possibilities and expressions.... Does it work? provide real world problems in context and encourage realistic approaches to problem-solving provide multiple viewpoints stress inter-relatedness negotiate goals and empower learners foster reflective practice and use errors as opportunities emphasize construction not reproduction and build on existing knowledge and beliefs zone of proximal development

development through dialogue Socrates Piaget Roland Zumbühl spiral reconstruction during childhood development

assimilation and accommodation readiness
spiral curriculum
extrapolation b 1896 b 1896 b 1915 the teacher who knew that he knew nothing b 469 bc Themes: The dominant paradigm in medical education Schmidt et al (2009) - says yes
about PBL
better for interpersonal skills and dropout rate
medical knowledge and Dx skills equivocal "...the epistemology of a discipline should not be confused with a pedagogy for teaching or learning it." Kirschner, Sweller & Clark (2006) Philosophy Learning Teaching BUT is it evidence-based? A divergence... what do you want? do the connections become increasingly tenuous between:
a spectrum of philosophical constructs
theories of learning (with evidence but mainly from children)
practical applications of teaching (1:1 or 1:many)
curricula making some of those applications more likely to occur How do knowledgable others influence my understanding?
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