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Colonization of America

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Lisa Lane

on 13 October 2017

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Transcript of Colonization of America

Carolina Colony Notes

Ralph Lane Colony
Encouraged:
Raleigh was so encouraged by the Amadas and Barlowe expedition, Raleigh sent another expedition but this one was to make a
permanent
settlement. Raleigh chose present day Roanoke on the
Outer Banks
for the settlement. This time a scientist,
Thomas Harriot
, and an artist,
John White
were aboard.
Ralph Lane
was to be the commander once the ship landed.

Problems:
Colonists sent the captain back to England to get supplies. They arrived too late to plant
crops
, and due to the bad growing season, the Natives had little to
share
. The people were unhappy with Lane’s leadership. He was a military man and most people were not used to military style rule. Problems also arose between the Native Americans and the colonists. While still awaiting for supplies from
England
,
Sir Francis Drake
arrived unexpectedly. Lane and the colonists went with him back to England. The supplies arrived only days later. The captain couldn’t locate the men so he left 15 of his men there and returned to England as well.

Achievements:
Lane returned to England with valuables: tobacco, corn, and a marsh potato. They also brought back very important documents about the region thanks to Thomas Harriot’s
reports
and John White’s
drawings
. There were also several maps.

The Lost Colony Con't
Running out of supplies:
Once again, the colony arrived too
late
to plant seeds for crops. And again, the natives didn’t have enough food to share. John White had to return to England for food and supplies. He left 9 days after his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, was born. The colony was considering moving to a better site and told White that they would leave their destination carved in a
tree
if they moved before he returned. When White returned to England, England was at war with
Spain
. Because of this, no ships were allowed to leave. Queen Elizabeth I wanted all ships there in case they needed them for combat. It was not until 3 years later that White was able to return to the New World. When White returned, the colony was deserted and some of the important gear had been left behind. White found the words CRO and CROATOAN carved on a post and a tree. Croatoan was a nearby island where friendly natives, including Manteo lived. White was not able to search for the colony because of a severe
storm
whose winds pushed the ship back to England. He was never able to
return
. No one has ever been able to locate where the people of this colony went.
In the Beginning:
How’d It Happen? Sir Walter Raleigh
was given a
charter
from
Queen Elizabeth I
“to discover and inhabit strange lands.” He selected
Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe
as captains of a two-ship fleet that sailed from Plymouth, England. They arrived near Cape Lookout 2 ½ months later making them the first people of English decent to set foot on what is now NC. They traveled up the coast to what is now
Roanoke
.

Reporting to Raleigh:
The Native Americans in Roanoke were very friendly. They traded with one another. The English people collected specimens of the country’s natural resources and gathered information about the area. When they left to go back to England, two Native Americans,
Manteo and Wanchese
, went with them. The presence of Manteo and Wanchese aroused even more interest because of their language and
culture
.

Raleigh Knighted:
Queen Elizabeth was so delighted with the finding, she
knighted
Raleigh for his role to settle in the New World. The new land was named Virginia in honor of Elizabeth I, “the Virgin Queen.” The expedition excited England about the possibilities in the New World.

The Lost Colony
Setting up another colony:
Raleigh was disappointed with the Ralph Lane colony’s failure but he was determined to have a successful one. This time he sent John White, who had drawn the maps and pictures, as the
governor
. He also sent 117 colonists including 17
women
and 9 boys. This time Raleigh decided the men would be
landowners
. The colonists were to settle at the Chesapeake Bay because it had easier sea access. This did not happen, however, because the captain of the ship landed at Roanoke and decides that it was too late in the summer to sail any further. He wanted to get back to England before the winter.

Arrival:
When the colony arrived on Roanoke, they discovered that the fort of the Lane colony had been destroyed, and besides the bones of one man, there was no trace of the other
colonists
left behind. The new colonists got to work to repair the fort and other outbuildings that had been left standing. The first child born in the New World by a European was born. Her name was
Virginia Dare
, and she was the
granddaughter
of John White.

Native Americans:
The Native Americans from the mainland did not like the colonists. They attacked one of them and killed him. The
Croatoan
people who lived in the area were
friendly
. This is the tribe Manteo and Wanchese belonged to. They assured the colonists that the tribe that attacked were enemies of the Croatoans as well.

Sir Walter Raleigh
Thomas Harriot
John White Map of NC
Spanish Armada
Carolana
Getting its start:
Even though the Virginia Company’s charter included much of what is modern-day North Carolina, the area remained
unexplored
. In 1622, an exploring expedition came to northeastern NC. They discovered fruitful lands and enormous forests of pine trees that were perfect for ship masts and making tar and pitch for England’s navy. These products were called
naval stores
because they were used in
ship
building. Several years later, people from Virginia, in search of better land, headed south. They made their way to what was now called
Carolana
, named after King Charles I. By the early 1660’s, as many as 500 people lived in the area between Virginia and the
Albemarle
Sound (our area.)

Changes:
King Charles II takes over England, and he owes a
debt
to the people who helped him gain the throne. He rewards them a vast track of land in America (Carolana). They were to be known as
Lord Proprietors.
These are people who are
owners
and rulers. This land ran from the Chesapeake Bay southward to what is now the middle of Florida. It also reached all the way to the Pacific Ocean.


Pick one section of the notes (In the Beginning, The Ralph Lane Colony, or The Lost Colony—note that they are all several paragraphs) and write a 5 sentence summary.
You will use the same 5 W’s you are using for your 9 weeks project.
1st sentence should include the who, when, and where
2nd -4th sentence will be the what
5th sentence is the why.
Use your 9 weeks project chart (also on my website) to make sure you answer the questions right.
Copy and paste into box in Canvas.

Carolana Con't
The first government parties:
Early in the history of the Albemarle area, two political parties were created. The governor, council, and men who owed their positions to the Proprietors or the governor made up one party, the
prerogative party
. They believed that a government
independent
of the people would best serve the interests of the colony. On the other side was the
popular party
. This was made up of men who had settled before the Proprietors took over. They believed that the will of the
people
should determine government actions. This party often rebelled at what they saw as
unfair
orders and interference from the government.



William Craven
One of the Lord Proprietors
Carolana Con't
Money and Trade:
The Lords Proprietors didn’t want to spend their own money to get the colony started. Instead they wanted colonists from
other
colonies to settle in NC. No gold had been found so they had to rely on the rich
resources
the land provided. To make money, the Proprietors needed settlers to
buy
land, develop it, and pay taxes (
quitrent
) on it. Travel was very difficult to get to the Albemarle region from VA due to the forests and
swamps
. The water in the area was very shallow as well. Another problem was that the Proprietors only allowed small land grants despite the abundance of land. Quitrents were twice as high as in VA.

Unpopular Trade Laws:
One of Carolina’s biggest problems was that the Lord Proprietors did
not
establish a good government. Governors were weak and/or dishonest. They were unable to preserve order, promote the welfare of the people, or even defend them against Indians, pirates, and other enemies. Then the English government wanted to enforce the
Navigation Acts
. These laws stated that colonial goods could only be carried in
British
and colonial ships. They also stated that all goods must be shipped to England. This made it impossible for the colonies to trade with another country or even another
colony
. The Proprietors had to enforce these laws in fear of losing their charter from the king. This caused a fight between the 2 political parties.

Carolana Con't
Culpeper’s Rebellion:
The popular party led by John Jenkins, George Durant, and John Culpeper, opposed the new laws and tried to
prevent
their enforcement. The prerogative party, led by Thomas Eastchurch and Thomas Miller was equally determined to uphold them. In 1676, the popular party
rebelled.
They armed themselves and forcefully took control of the
colonial
government. For 2 years they governed the colony very well. But of course, the leaders of the prerogative party complained to the king. In 1678, the popular party sent Culpeper to London to explain its actions and to assure the Lords Proprietors of the party’s
loyalty
. Culpeper was arrested and tried for
treason
, or going against the government. The Proprietors, however, saved Culpeper worried that the king would take Culpeper’s Rebellion, as the event became known as, as a reason to take over the colony. Culpeper was
acquitted
of treason and found guilty only of “riot.” The verdict ended Culpeper’s Rebellion, one of the first popular uprisings in the American colonies.
Navigation Acts
John Culpeper
Carolana Con't
Straightening out:
The Carolina colony went through several problems getting its government straight. However, by the early 1700’s, things were looking much better. Many people were arriving to the colony and its first town,
Bath
, was established. Port Bath was also created, making the town an important
trading
center.

Becoming Separate Colonies
Religious Disagreements:
The political struggles between the
Anglicans
, people who worshiped the Church of
England
, and the
Quakers
convinced the Proprietors that they needed a more effective government in the Northern part of the colony. The decided to appoint a governor of North Carolina, independent of South Carolina’s governor. They appointed Edward Hyde to be the
first
governor of NC on May 9, 1712. This date marks the separation of North and South Carolina.

Edward Hyde
NC's First Governor
Assignment
Put the following in your vocab notebook:

7. Acquitted: to be found not guilty of a crime
8. naval stores
9. Lord Proprietors
10. Prerogative Party
11. Popular Party
12. quitrent
13. Navigation Acts
14. Treason

King Charles II
Full transcript