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Epigenetic Insights into Stem Cell Research

Introduction to stem cells with 2010 data concerning epigenetic evaluation of iPS cells.

Kenneth Weed

on 27 March 2012

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Transcript of Epigenetic Insights into Stem Cell Research

fig. 1 ...and don't forget:
there is a lot to
explore in Prezi Epigenetic Insights into Stem Cell Research Stem cells are "immortal." These cells are epidermal (or skin) adult stem cells.
Stem cells can replicate over and over again producing
identical copies of themselves. Fully open-pluripotent-stem cells can
differentiate into (or become) any other type of cell. Embryonic stem cells Embryonic stem cells are PLURIPOTENT PLURIPOTENT PLURIPOTENT Embryonic stem cells induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS) Adult Stem Cells MULTIPOTENT iPS cells Are they identical to embryonic stem cells? DNA Histones Chromosomes Epigenetic Insights into Stem Cell Research Rosettes are "differentiated" and are only able to become cells associated with their "type." harvested prior to implantation
can become any "type" of cell. are donated adult stem cells
"reprogrammed" to restore potency How does a cell know what "type" it is?
Doesn't every cell have a complete set of DNA instructions?
Why aren't all cells stem cells? DNA, containing all of the instructions to make all of the proteins in an organism,
must be tightly wound to compress its size in the cell. provide an organized way to wind DNA and keep it available for use when needed. enable histones to associate together
further reducing overall size. When fully compacted, cannot be used to make protein. Many factors including food, chemicals, stress, and hormones are involved in the opening and closing of regions of DNA. Epigenetics is the study of chemical factors (including methyl groups shown here) that modify how tightly certain regions of DNA are compressed and how that affects protein production. Observe the varying columns in this image.
Each column represents a different type of cell.
The blue/yellow coloring represents variations in the epigenetic patterning of the cell types.
Notice how epigenetic patterning varys during development by comparing the red and orange columns.

Different cell types have differing epigenetic patterning. The more "open" the DNA, the more proteins a region can produce. If epigenetics can open and close DNA, starting and stopping protein production, then... we can learn about various diseases by
monitoring their relevant epigenetics profiles.
This also means that different types of cells
should have different epigenetic profiles. Comparing the epigenetic profiles of Embryonic stem (ESC) cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPSC) cells, and regular body (somatic) cells. The somatic cells shown
are converted into
the iPS cells shown.

Note how well the
iPs and the ESC compare,
especially in contrast
to the source somatic cells.
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