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The Developing Baby

Growth and Stages
by

Carlye Satterwhite

on 15 February 2013

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Transcript of The Developing Baby

The Developing Baby Ovum: *Female Reproductive cell
-Egg
-Ova -When the egg reaches the uterus if it is not fertilized, it usually disintegrates and is flushed out of the body with the menstrual flow. Egg moves through the fallopian tube to the UTERUS
*Uterus: Womb-where the baby develops during pregnancy * The journey for the sperm to unite with the egg takes about two or three days. -When the egg meets and it IS fertilized by a sperm (*male sex cell) conception takes place and pregnancy begins. Conception- *the union sperm and egg -*An ovum lives 12 to 24 hours; while sperm is capable of fertilizing an ovum for 48 to 72 hours. -There are only three to four days in each woman's in each female's menstrual cycle during which intercourse could lead to conception.

-Only days 14-18 YOU ARE THE MOST FERTILE Period of the Zygote:
*Zygote
*Embryo
*Fetus Zygote
-*fertilized egg cell *Zygote lasts for 2 weeks
*Zygote travels down the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the thickened lining of the uterus. -*Zygote grows by dividing by 2, 4, etc
-Until there is a mass of cells
-*Usually the size of a pinhead *Stage 2-Embryo
-*Baby develops from about the third through
eighth weeks of pregnancy.
-Mass of cells develop into all the major systems of the human body Mass of cells turn into
- Heart
- Lungs
- Bones
- Muscle Embryo Stage:
-*Amniotic fluid: protects the developing baby
-Gives cushion Embryo Stage:
-Placenta Develops
-*Placenta: blood cells on the uterus wall which
nourish the embryo during pregnancy through
the umbilical cord. Fetal Development
-1 Month
-First four weeks:
*Size of Pinhead
*Egg attaches
*Critical stage for brain/spinal cord development
Organs and circulatory system begins to form
Heart begins to beat. Month 2 (Eight Weeks)
-*Size 1/4 inch (6mm)
-*Face, eyes, ears, and limbs take shape.
-*Bones Form -Month 3 (12 Weeks)
*Size: 1 inch (25mm)
-*Nostrils, mouth, lips, teeth buds, eyelids all form
-Fingers and toes almost complete
-All organs present, but immature Month 4 (16 Weeks)
-*Size: 3 inches, one ounce
-*Can suck its thumb, swallow, hiccup, and move around
-*Facial features become more clear -*Month 6
-*Size: About 8-10inches, about 8-12 ounces
-Fat deposits under skin, but fetus wrinkled
-*Breathing movements begin Month 5 (20 Weeks)
-*About 6 1/2-7 inches
-*4-5 ounces
-Hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows appear
-Organs are maturing
-Becomes more active -Month 7 (28 weeks)
-*Size 10-12 inches, 1 1/2-2 lbs
-Periods of activity followed by periods of rest -*Month 8 (32 weeks)
-*Size about 14-16 inches, 2 1/2-3 lbs
-*Weight Gain
-May react to loud noises with a reflex
-Moves into head down position -*Month 9 (36-42 weeks)
-*Size about 17-18 inches, 5-6 lbs
-Weight gain continues until week
before birth
-Skin becomes smooth as fat deposits continue
-Movements decrease as the fetus
-Acquires antibodies from mother
-Descends into pelvis, ready for birth Multiple Births
-*Fertilized egg starts growing by dividing into two cells.
-Cells continues to divide, and grow into a separate embryo
-RESULT: Identical Twins
-Always the same sex, because both began as one zygote Fraternal Twins:
-Two separate eggs are fertilized in the uterus
-Fraternal twins occurs three times more often than identical twins Infertility:
*Inability to become pregnant
-Options to overcome:
-Surgery
-Medication
-Fertility Drugs
-Adoption
-Artificial Semination
-In Vitro Fertilization Adoption: couple can take legally take all
responsibility and rights for raising a child
already born. *Artificial insemination: doctor injects
sperm into females uterus during ovulation In Vitro Fertilization:
Used when a women has damaged fallopian tubes the prevent pregnancy
-* Doctor combines mature egg from female and adds a mature sperm to create a zygote, then implants the zygote into the females uterus. Ovum Transfer: *egg is taken from a female donor and in vitro ferilized into the infertile female.
Usually used for females who lack working ovaries or who have inherited disorders Surrogate mother:
*mother is a female who becomes pregnant for another couple.
She may carry a couple's fertilized egg, removed from the biological mother because she is unable to carry a pregnancy to completion. Ovarian Drilling:
*Surgical treatment that creates the female to ovulate. Electrocautery or a laser is used to destroy parts of the ovaries. Problems:
*1: Miscarriage: baby is lost before 20 weeks of pregnancy
*2: Stillborn: baby is lost after 20 weeks of pregnancy Problems in Prenatal Development Almost 20% of all pregnancies
end in miscarriage Birth Defects:
3 out of every 100 children born in the United States
are born with a birth defect.
Scientists do not understand the cause of about 50% of
the birth defects. Birth Defects:
Can be caused by environmental factors.
Example:
-*Nutritional Balance of Diet
-*Any Disease or infections the mother had during pregnancy
-*Harmful substances the mother takes in during pregnancy
-Some Medicines the benefit the mother, but hurt the baby
-Exposure to outside hazards such as radiation Birth Defects:
Can also be caused by Hereditary factors
Examples:
*Each parent carries a recessive gene which can cause the baby to have a birth defect Birth Defects can also only affect one sex:
Males:
Hemophilia-condition which prevents the blood from clotting
Color Blindness Birth Defects:
-Errors in chromosomes:
*Too many or too little chromosomes in the baby's cells
(Not inherited by parents)
Most Common Error in chromosomes:
*Down Syndrome:
-Has an extra chromosome 21
-Increased risk when mother is over 35
-1 in 800 births have downs Cerebral Palsy
*brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, learning, hearing, seeing, and thinking. Cleft Lip and/or Cleft Palate
*affect the upper lip and the roof of the mouth.

A cleft lip and palate can:
Affect the appearance of the face
Lead to problems with feeding and speech
Lead to ear infections Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
*passed down through families that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body Muscular Dystrophy
*group of inherited disorders that involve muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, which get worse over time Sickle Cell Anemia
*passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape Spina Bifida
*spinal cord does not develop or close before birth

Hydrocephalus
*water on the brain Tay-Sachs Disease
-*lack a certain chemical in their blood that makes their bodies unable to process and use fats Genetic Couseling:
-Some couples seek genetic counseling because they are concerned about their chances of having a baby with a serious birth defect. Genetic Counseling does not tell people what to do; only explains the options and risks.
-Ususally parents are aware of a specific possible problem that runs in the family Prenatal Tests:
-help determine birth defects
-help alert physician to a condition the could be treated before or right after birth
-Blood tests 1. *Ultrasound:
-*uses sound waves to make a video image of an unborn baby
-Now in 3D and 4D
-Determine Due Date
-Determine sex
-Multiple embroy Three Procedures to make a prenantal diagnosis: -Can almost give you an exact facial feature picture of the baby
-Much better with new technology Ultrasounds *Process of withdrawing a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding an unborn baby and testing that fluid for indications of a birth defect/health problems Amniocentesis -Doctor will withdraws the fluid by using a needle, an ultrasound image is used to guide when inserting the needle
-Cells from the fetus are contained and evidence of birth defects Amniocentesis
-*Down-Syndrome
-*Check uterus function
-*Anemia
-*Lung maturity
-Cystic Fibrosis
-Spina Bifida
-DNA Paternity Test Amniocentesis is most often tested for: -*Samples small amounts of tissue from the membrane that encases the fetus
-Guided by an ultrasound tube to the cervix

-Tissue is snipped or suctioned off for analysis
-Tests the same genetic tests as amniocentesis, but advantage they can test this at an earlier stage Chrionic Villi -*Can cause miscarriage
-*Birth Defects Disadvantages from Chorionic villi sampling:
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