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History of Wine
Transcript of History of Wine
Lens Laborde Wine was also used as offerings to God due to it's high price and scarcity Social Lifestyles
Rome vs Greece Symposiums Greece Land trade was fairly difficult, making wine expensive in outside areas that produce wine like Greece because climate was less suitable for viticulture. - Commercial scale
- Main exports/traded by sea
- Introduced to sicily The rise of Greek viticulture which grew grapes instead of grain was so dramatic, that grains were imported to maintain an adequate supply. By the 2nd century BCE : Greece still dominated the Mediterranean wine trade. Wine was the only product exported in vast amounts of Greek vessels to the Italian Peninsula. Sea trade was used more often due to wine's heavy and perishable nature.
- helped to trade over a larger geographic area During reigns of Ashurnasinpal and Shalmanesar... (around 2500 BCE)
- wine started to become a tribute offering
- it was offered with gold, silver, horses, cattle, and other valuables This vanished from tribute lists within 2 centuries. Christians drank wine because: Christian Values - Christ was said to once transform 6 jars of water to wine (his first miracle)
- Christ was offered a sponge and dipped himself in wine before his crucifixion
- Wine symbolizes Jesus' blood, while bread represented his body Why Muslims don't consume wine... Muslims don't drink wine because they believed that Allah (God) once stated to Muhammad that alcohol (including wine) and gambling stir and arouse a devil like behavior and that Satan seeks hatred among us. Punishment of drinking wine was 40 lashes Due to high costs to transport wine: Causing everyone that wasn't rich to substitute with "date-palm", an alcoholic drink made from fermented date syrup (popular among lower classes.
*Widely cultivated in Mesopotamia During the 1st Millennium BCE, many people left beer, which was no longer the most cultured and civilized of drinks, for wine. Starting the Age of Wine. Medicinal Value -contain natural antibacterial agents
-used to clean contaminated water
-used to heal wounded soldiers
- They believed the better the wine the more effective for medical use
- used for cold and flu diseases
* Soldiers treated by wine were less likely to be infected than the ones treated by water - wine was newly "fashionable"
- considered an "exotic foreign drink"
- was "worthy for consumption by gods"
- Wine represented power, privilege and prosperity
-Became restricted only for the elite citizens
- accessibility to wine became a mark of status
-"wine was wealth"
- Wine was so important "the Athenian tradition was to perform three offerings:
one to the gods
one to the fallen heroes
one to Zeus, the king of the Greek gods *Wine became so popular that your class was decided by how many acres you owned. Low classes owned less than 7 acres and the higher the amount of acres you owned, the higher your class and richer you'll be. Pros and Cons Farmers that shifted from subsistence farming to industrial and commercial farming for wine made 20 times more money. Falnerian Murfatlar este lider în România, cu o cota de piata de 30%. Due to wine becoming extremely widespread, it wasn't considered expensive or exotic enough for offerings. Hope You Enjoyed our glass! What is wine? - wine is a very fashionable alcoholic drink made from fermented fruits. - a very popular fruit used for wine would be grapes Around 870 BCE... - wine was extremely scarce - only rich could afford wine - drinking wine symbolized how wealthy you were Plato claimed that wine tests a person's true character because.... - drinking wine was said to arouse or emit the true behavior of a person - such as anger, love, pride, greed, etc.. - social gathering for male aristocrats - took place in an "andron" or a special room for men - sat on special couches with a cushion under one arm - usually a dozen men would take part, but the number of attendants wouldn't exceed over 30 - a popular Greek tradition from 18th century BCE Trade The 2 concepts of wine growth: Religious Values Wine outside Greece and Rome Why it became accepted Geography Rome - Romans drank wine in Conviviums: - Wine was usually mixed with water - people would be served different wines depending on their position in society - Your wealth was reflected on the amount of wine goblets that you owned Sumptuary Laws - passed to try restraining Rome's richest citizens from consuming high amounts of wine - numerous of these were passed due to the low enforcement and obedience 1) Wine production increased:
- the volume of wine trade grew
- there were fewer borders to cross due to empires and large states boosted availability of wine (causing cheaper transportation due to fewer taxes and tolls)
2) Volumes grew and prices fell
- Wine became available to a broader spectrum of society (causing higher wine consumption) - The luckiest rulers were the ones that owned empires encompassing wine making regions
Ex. The Assyrian Kings *Sometimes wine would be watered down to lengthen parties
*Also was cheaper - Wine was highly expensive outside areas of high wine production
18 silas (liters) of wine in Mesopotamia was 1 shekel of silver (a month's pay of minimum wage) - wine could only be an everyday drink for the highly rich... - Wine was mainly abundant in the eastern Mediterranean.
- The highest producer for wine was and still is Greece due to the high viticulture.
-Wine was plentiful in Greece due to the climate & terrain of greek islands,
- Wine isn't a highly abundant resource due to the time it takes to be produced anymore
- Wine encouraged many farmers of Greece to shift from subsistence farming to industrial farming
- The vines were usually harvested in the month of September - Producers of wine would highly benefit due to the high amounts of economic surplus for providing wine.
- Depending on the location of the consumer:
-Consumers from outside wine producing areas will have to pay quite a high amount due to scarcity and costs of transportation
-Consumers within an area of viticulture won't have to pay as much due to the high amount of availability When accessibility of wine expanded throughout lower classes, many citizens of the higher classes chose to drink more exotic types of wine from the rest of the classes. They considered the finest wine to be - An italian wine in the Campania Region
- Grown on the slopes of Mount Falernus (a mountain south of modern day Naples)
- The finest Falnerian wine was white wine, which was generally aged for about 10 years or sometimes longer, until it turned golden in color
- The limited production area and long aging trend made it extremely expensive
- Was the wine of the elite
- This wine was even drunk by Julius Caesar The 7th Glass Energy Drinks - we face more hectic, busier lifestyles than we did before
- much of our country's population is within the work force
- many people don't eat their full amount of nutrients they need everyday
- we aren't as healthy as the generations before us The property-owning had classes according to their vineyard holdings
the lowest class had less than seven acres, and the next three classes up owned around ten, fifteen, and twenty five acres of vineyards