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Chapter 9 - Section 1 - Roman Republic
Transcript of Chapter 9 - Section 1 - Roman Republic
He named them Romulus
and Remus. Years later, the two brothers decided to build a city. This would be a city where others who were homeless, as they once were, could come to live. But the brothers argued over where to build the city. One night Romulus and Remus agreed to watch for an omen, a sign from the gods, to settle their argument. At dawn , Remus saw six vultures flying overhead. However, as the sun rose higher in the sky, Romulus saw 12 vultures. The brothers quarreled and began fighting over the meaning of the vultures in the sky, and in a rage, Romulus killed Remus. Romulus then began to build his city on the spot he had chosen-the hill where the tiny basket containing the two babies had come to rest years before. He named his new city after himself- Rome. According to this legend, the date was 753 B.C. and Romulus was the first of seven kings. He was believed to be a great warrior-king and started Rome’s first army and its first government. Republic The Founding of Rome THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Seven Hills
Settled by Latins Farmed During the Day
Defended at Night Tiber River Mediterranean Sea Trade Routes Fresh Water Roman Trade Routes Helped conquer and Trade Mountain Ranges large Plains Mountains Mountains wheat
grapes (wealthy farmers)
chickens Roman Farm Roman Home The Rise of the Republic The common people of Rome were very angry over harsh treatment by the rich and powerful people of Rome, so they moved out of the city. A Roman historian named Livy wrote about this terrible time in the city of Rome in 494 B.C. "There was great panic in the city, and everyone was afraid. Many of the common people were leaving the city . The rich and powerful people wondered how long the crowds who stayed in Rome would remain peaceful? And what would happen if an army was needed to fight foreign invaders?" This struggle between the Roman leaders and the common people continued for 200 years as the common people of Rome tried to gain equal rights. Patricians (puh TRISH uhns) were members of the small amount of wealthy Roman families. Plebeians (plih BEE uhns) were the majority of the population –workers, shopkeepers, and peasants. Although both groups had the right to vote, only patricians had the right to become leaders in Rome. So, All power was in the hands of the patricians. Twelve Tables By 494 B.C., the plebeians had suffered long enough. They formed their own assembly, known as the Council of Plebeians. They also elected their own leaders, called tribunes to protect their rights. Now the plebeians could vote against any bad law passed by the Senate. Next, the plebeians demanded that the laws be changed . Since Rome’s laws had never been written down, patrician judges often ruled unfairly against plebeians. The Republic expands 300 B.C. dominated central Italy 275 B.C.
and Greeks Conquered people got: Roman Citizenship, govern themselves, Conquered people had to: pay taxes and provide soldiers Punic Wars Carthage A
Center That was fine with Hannibal. He had never forgotten the promise he had made to his father. He had orders from Carthage to fight Rome. He needed to take Rome by surprise. He decided to attack Rome from the north. Rome would never expect that. Hannibal’s plan was to march 90,000 foot soldiers, 12,000 cavalry, and 37 elephants from Spain, through Gaul, over the Alps, into Italy, and then take Rome by force.
His plan did not work as expected. The route was more rugged that he had expected. He lost nearly all his elephants and half his men on the trip. He expected people in Northern Italy to help him. They did help him by leaving him alone, but they would not join his army. Carthage did not have a strong navy to use to send supplies.
Hannibal came up with a new plan. Instead of marching on Rome, he drove Rome crazy by attacking smaller outposts and stealing food and weapons, food intended for Rome. Hannibal and his men stayed on the Italian peninsula for 15 years, causing trouble where he could.
In 203 BCE, Rome had had it with Hannibal. They couldn’t catch him, so they attacked Carthage instead. Carthage, in a panic, called Hannibal home. Before Hannibal could arrive, Carthage had agreed to peace terms with Rome. Terms:
Carthage would leave Spain, Gaul, and Italy
Carthage would reduce their navy to 20 warships
Carthage had to pay 5000 talents (the money of the time) in war damages
Once Hannibal arrived home, the leaders in Carthage changed their minds. They decided not to honor their peace terms. Rome was furious. They sent an army to Carthage. Hannibal’s army lost, but Hannibal managed to get away. If possible, Rome was even more furious. Carthage had not kept their promise. Again. Rome still did not have their hands on Hannibal.
This time, the peace terms were more severe. Terms:
Carthage would leave Spain, Gaul, and Italy
Carthage would reduce their navy to 10 warships
Carthage had to pay 10000 talents (the money of the time) in war damages, in 50 equal annual payments, over the next 50 years.
Carthage called it quits. They left Spain. They left Gaul. They left Italy. They reduced their navy. They paid the talents they owed each year, promptly. The 2nd Punic War was finally over.
That did not stop Hannibal, though. Hannibal spent the rest of his life fighting the growing power of ancient Rome. The Romans never stopped looking for him. In spite of all their best efforts, the Romans did not catch up with Hannibal until he was 64 years old! Even then, they didn’t get him. He chose to die by swallowing the poison he kept in his ring.
Hannibal still ranks as one of the most magnificent military minds in history and one of the world’s greatest generals. Carthage was no longer in a position to hurt Rome after the second Punic War, but in 149BC, Roman leaders decided to destroy Carthage. A Roman senator named Cato ended every speech with the cry, “Carthage must be destroyed.” Rome defeated Carthage after almost three years of war. After a siege in 146BC, the Romans went from house to house slaughtering the people of Carthage. They sold the remaining citizens into slavery, burned Carthage’s harbor, and poured salt on the Carthaginian farmland. The salt made it impossible for crops to grow and ensured that Carthage would never again rival the Eternal City.