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Egyptian ABC Book
Transcript of Egyptian ABC Book
C is for Chariot
A chariot was used during war in Ancient egyptian times. Archers would position themselves on top and shoot at their enemies. Chariots were usually pulled by two or more horses. It was introduced to Egyptians by the Hyksos. Before war, the chariot was used for transportation.
D is for Djed
A djed is a symbol of stability. It is associated with Osiris, god of the underworld. People thought that it represented Osiris's spine. It was put in tombs as an amulet, usually with the tyet symbol. Used in a ceremony called "raising the djed."
A is for Ankh
An Ankh, also known as the "key of life", represents eternal life. It often appeared in tombs, and on cypress coins. It was often carried along with strength and health amulets. Pharaohs carried scepters with an ankh on top.
B is for Bastet
Bastet, or the "Lady of the East", was the goddess of protection. She took form of a cat. She took form of a lion in battle. She was the daughter of Ra, the sun god.A temple is dedicated to her in Bubastis.
By Drew Bimson and Nick Nosal
E is for Embalming
Embalming, also known as autopsy or mummification, is the process of preserving a body. Many chemicals, including bitumen and natron, were used in the process. Citizens had to pay to be embalmed. They could have animals embalmed as well. Egyptians believed that preserving the body allowed the spirit to return to the body.
F is for Faience
Faience is a ceramic glaze used by Egyptians. Most of it was a blue or green. All Faience was made close to each other. It was made of crushed quartz or sand. Faience was used for glazing ushabti or other pottery.
G is for Great Pyramid
The Great Pyramid of Giza was built by Pharaoh Khufu. It was 488 feet tall and 3 acres at its base. It is only 455 feet tall and 3 acres at its base now, due to erosion. It is built out of brick and stone, with its surface polished by limestone. It has 3 chambers located inside. It is the only surviving ancient wonder of the world.
H is for Horus
Horus is the god of war, the sky, and protection. He took form of a falcon. He is the son of Isis and Osiris. Egyptians believed that his right eye represented the sun and his left eye represented the moon. His eye was ripped out by Set, and then restored by Thoth. Pharaohs were thought to be Horus in human form.
I is for Isis
J is for Jinn
K is for Khufu
L is for Lotus
M is for Mummy
N is for The Nile
O is for Osiris
P is for Papyrus
Q is for Quarry
R is for Ramses III
S is for Set
T is for Tomb
U is for Ushabti
V is for Valley
W is for Was
X is for Xois
Y is for Yaru
Z is for Zodiacs
Isis was god of motherhood, magic, and fertility. She was the daughter of Geb and Nut. Isis translated is throne. She married Osiris and gave birth to Horus. She took form of the kite bird.
Jinn is a spiritual creature. They can be male or female. They are angels and humans. Egyptians said that they could be bad or good. They make up the three sapient creatures of god. They inhabited an unseen world or realm.
Khufu as a pharaoh from ancient egyptian times.He reigned from 2589 to 2566 B.C.E. He was the son of Snefru,Meritites, and Henutsen. Khufu's most famous accomplishment was building the great pyramid of Giza. The only portrait of him that we have is a 3inch tall clay figurine.
A mummy is a dead human or animal that has been preserved. Egyptians thought that bodies that were mummified had a better afterlife. To preserve the body, they would have to embalm it by dehydrating the body. The important mummies were buried in tombs. Mummies were also part of religious ceremonies.
Osiris is the god of the underworld and the afterlife. He got married to Isis and had a child, Horus. He had a brother, Set that killed him to take the throne. Anubis then restored Osiris's life, allowing him to become a god. Osiris always wears an atef, or a white crown. He has a temple dedicated to him in Denderah.
Papyrus is a plant that is found around The Nile river. It was Egyptians main source of paper.Many documents were written on papyrus. One of these documents was The Book Of The Dead. Today papyrus is a big money plant.
A quarry is a large pit that is used for a mine. Usually stone is mined out of a quarry. Many quarries in Egypt are located along The Nile. Much of the stone was used in statues and monuments. Some quarry have been trapped underwater. Others are used for current mining.
Ramses III was the 2nd pharoah of the 20th dynasty. He was the son of Setnakte and Tiy-Merenex. He reigned from 1186-1155 B.C.E. He was murdered by an unknown assassin. His tomb was raided and stolen from by tomb robbers
The Nile is the largest river in the world. It runs straight through the middle of Egypt. It flows South to North into the Mediterranean Sea. Egyptians got most of their water from The Nile. Also the Nile was the sole supplier of papyrus, a plant used to make paper for egyptians.It is the habitat for a variety of animals.
A Lotus is a type of flower. There are 3 species of Lotus the Nymphaea, the Nymphaea cerula, and the Neiumbo nucifera. The Nymphaea is white, the Neiumbo nucifera is pink, and the Nymphaea cerula is blue. Blue is the most common. The lotus opens during the day and closes at night. It is commonly used to represent Upper Egypt.
Set is the god chaos, the desert, and storms. He took form of an aardvark. He married his sister, Nepthys and gave birth to Anubis. He tried to kill his brother Osiris, but Anubis, restored Osiris's life. Set was thought to have been killed by Horus, his nephew.
Tombs are structures used to bury for burial. One example of a tomb is the Great Pyramid of Giza. Tombs in the open were often raided so hey started being put underground. Only wealthy people could afford tombs. Tombs were always sealed to keep commoners outside.
Ushabti are are clay figurines shaped like humans. They were put in tombs to serve the dead in the afterlife. They were made out of limestone. They had a hoe on their shoulder and a basket on their back. Very few Ushabti are made very large. The Ushabti originated in the Old Kingdom.
The Valley of Kings is a valley with 63 egyptian tombs in it. One of these tombs is the tomb of King Tut. The valley is located on the bank of the Nile river. It is a myth that it has the "Curse of the Pharaohs". A mountain called The Peak of Tadehent is inside the valley. The valley has occasional flash floods
A Was is a war scepter carried by god and pharaohs. It is a symbol of domination and power. It appears as an animal head on a forked staff. It represents the Set-Animal as well. It also appeared in tombs.
Xois is a city on an island in the Nile Delta . It was a considerable size The city was founded by Sebennytic Nome. In total Xois had 76 kings. The city was previously occupied by the Hyksos.
Yaru is the place where Egyptians believed they would live their afterlife. To get there they would have to go through the Duat. At the gate the dead man or woman would have to fight off monsters using the Book of The Dead. Then they would have to succeed in the Weighing of The Heart Ceremony. Anubis, Osiris and Thoth would weigh their heart. If their heart weighed more than a feather, the soul would be eaten. If their heart weighed less than a feather, they could proceed to Yaru.
Zodiacs are a series of symbols. In egyptian zodiacs, there are 12 classic signs. Onee of the non-classic symbols is the Big Dipper, that was thought to be the leg of an ox. Zodiacs represent the effect of stars on a person when they are born on a specific date.These times are split into decans