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APAH: Global Prehistory
Transcript of APAH: Global Prehistory
Why make art?
AP Art History
Great Hall of the Bulls
#2: 15,000-13,000 B.C.E.
Observe, Connect, Question
Old Stone Age
New Stone Age
Virtual Field Trip
Brainstorm as many questions as possible in time provided
Write questions exactly as they are stated
Don't stop to discuss or answer questions
Open vs Closed
more than one possible answer
one possible answer
your best question(s)
#8: 2500 - 1600 B.C.E.
involved setting upright wooden posts (maybe roofed structure) in center henge and near entrances
used for burial
25 Aubrey holes emptied and reused to hold cremation burials
30 additional cremation burial pits dug to ditch of the henge and near eastern portion
domestication of animals
pottery became popular
Discuss the relationship between art and the afterlife during Global Prehistory (30000-500BCE).
Buried Beliefs of Global Prehistory
Art during the Global Prehistoric era (30000-500 BCE) expressed a deep connection with the afterlife because agricultural innovations allowed increased specialization of labor and non-nomadic lifestyles. Jade Congs (ca ) from China, Tlatilco figurines from Mexico, and XXX exemplify this relationship.
The natural resources of the Yangzu River delta assisted with the development of art making in China and the creations' association with death. The rich soil of the region allowed for a surplus of rice and, consequently, the population increased. No longer needing to spend their time simply surviving, people turned towards specialized labor. As a result, writing, laws, and art emerged. Jade Congs, square, hallow tubes that are decorated with repeated lines/circles, were placed in graves throughout this point in history. Jade, an extremely hard stone, couldn't be carved or etched. Instead, people of this region rubbed sand to create the repetition of lines and circles. This process took time and would not have been possible in less resource rich regions of the world. While art historians agree that the regularity of the design was intentional, there is debate regarding the true function and meaning of Jade Congs. Some people argue that the patterns represent faces thus suggesting man's ability to think about himself abstractly. Others argue that the decorations adorning each along with their varying vertical form are symbols for the earth, sun, and heaven. This idea is particularly popular because these symbols appear later in Chinese art. Ultimately, the presence of these labor-intensive and symbolicly rich items in graves may suggest that people placed great value in the burial process.
advanced visual expressions
two-faces, large variety, 2 noses, 2 mouths, three eyes
typical representation: narrow waste, broad hips, traces of paint
clay, incised to create hair and hinged to create nose
red, white, yellow pigment
don't know what it means: no written record
scenes of daily life, funny scenes, engaged in intimate activities (not seen in other meso-america art)
animals/plants not used for food but for art
“Strange as it seems, it is in their cremation ceremonies that the Balinese have their greatest fun,” Miguel Covarrubias wrote in the 1937 book, Island of Bali. In 2008, the island saw one of its most lavish cremations ever as Agung Suyasa, head of the royal family, was burned along with 68 commoners. Thousands of volunteers gathered to carry a giant bamboo platform, an enormous wooden bull and wooden dragon. After a long procession, Suyasa’s body was eventually placed inside the bull and burned as the dragon stood witness. In the Balinese tradition, cremation releases the soul so it is free to inhabit a new body — and doing this is considered a sacred duty. [The New York Times]
Aboriginal mortuary rites in Australia.
When a loved one dies in Aboriginal society in Australia’s Northern Territory, elaborate rituals begin. First, a smoking ceremony is held in the loved one's living area to drive away their spirit. Next a feast is held, with mourners painted ochre as they partake in food and dance. The body is traditionally placed atop a platform and covered in leaves as it is left to decompose. It has been reported that in some traditions, fluids from the platform can help identify the deceased's killer. [PubMed]
Ghana fantasy coffins. In Ghana, people aspire to be buried in coffins that represent their work or something they loved in life. These so-called “fantasy coffins” were recently popularized by Buzzfeed, which showed images of 29 outrageous ones, from a coffin shaped like a Mercedes-Benz for a businessman to an oversized fish for a fisherman to a really big Bible for someone who loved going to church. [Buzzfeed]
What are your burial traditions?
Claim w/ Road Map
Model Body Paragraph
controversy among archaeologists about exactly how and when these phases occurred
Henge: circular ditch, six feet deep, with a bank of dirt within it about 360 feet in diameter
large entrance at northeast
smaller one to south
Inside Henge: 56 pits, 3 feet in diameter, called Aubrey Holes
originaly filled with upright (2-4 tons, mined from over 250 miles away) bluestones or wooden beams
6 feet deep
3 feet in diameter
filled Aubrey Holes
weighed 2-4 tons
mined from over 250 miles away
might have been wood
360 feet in diameter
upright, wooden posts
also located near entrance
Reused to hold cremation burials
30 additional cremation burial pits
lasted a long time
bluestones and wooden beams replaced by sarsen stones
quarried from nearby Marlborough Downs
capped with 30 lintel stones
each 13 feet high, seven feet wide, weighed 25 tons
enclosed 5 sarsen trilithons (a pair of upright stones with a lintel stone spanning their tops) in horseshoe shape
10 uprights and 5 lentils, weigh 50 tons each
bluestones reinstalled or freshly quarried erected in circle (half in hte outer, half within)
construction of long processional avenue with parallel banks; led to Avon River
a pair of upright stones with alintel stone spanning their tops
in horseshoe shape
10 upright sarsens stones
50 tons each
led to Avon River
replaced bluestones/wood beams
quarried from nearby
each = 13 feet high, 7 feet wide, 25 tons
capped with 30 lintel stones
reinstalled or freshly quarried
erected in half circle
EQ: How & when was Stonehenge Constructed?
Mini-EQ: Who constructed Stonehenge?
required precise planning and massive labor
remains of Neolithic villages are few
show simple farming hamlets with little evidence of different social status
conclusion: unusual, egalitarian endeavor
EQ: Who was buried at Stonehenge?
almost all adult males
aged 25-40 years old
good health, little sign of disease/hard labor
mark of elite status ; possibly first political leaders of Great Britain
suggests social distinction was desirable
EQ: How does the 3rd phase of Stonehenge suggest a new level of technical sophistication?
tongue & groove joints
mortise & tenon joints
curve to echo outer henge
arranged by size
pulls viewer inward to the monument
dressed differently on each side
inward: smooth finish
widened toward the top; makes mass constant when viewed from the ground
EQ: Why is Stonehenge famous?
sunrise of the midsummer solstice is framed by the end of the horseshoe of trilithons
sunrise of the midwinter sunset is framed by the center of the bend of the horseshoe of trilithons
turning points in seasonal calendar
relationship with the solar & lunar calendar
EQ: Why make art?
Apollo 11 Stones
named after NASA's moon landing
home of the oldest discovered images in the world
Apollo Caves, Namibia
painted brown-gray quartzite slabs
depicting a variety of ambiguous animals
painted in charcoal, ochre, & white
#1: 25,500–25,300 B.C.E.
Africa is where we share our common humanity
personal adornment in the form of perforated seashells suspended on twine
incised/engraved stones/eggshells that exhibit cross-hatching pattern
2 distinct art forms
Despite distances, remarkably similar
Using word art is problematic; our concept may be different than humans of the past
#7: 3300–2200 B.C.E.
#10: 1200–900 B.C.E.
Using at least two color theory concepts, color this handout
On the back, explain how each term relates to your rendering
Identify one question from the QFT process
Research it and write your findings on the back of the handout
must complete both parts & submit before end of unit