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Which soda does the most damage on tooth enamel?

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Matthew Barte

on 9 April 2013

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Transcript of Which soda does the most damage on tooth enamel?

Science Expo Presentation Which soda does the most damage on tooth enamel? Which soda does
the most damage on tooth enamel? By Matthew Barte, Nathan Banks, and Daniel Jackson = Why does soda damage tooth enamel? -High concentrations of sugar -Acid contents (pH) -High consumption rates (53 gallons per year) What is tooth enamel? -Helps maintain the tooth structure and shape -Hard outer surface layer that covers the visible part of the tooth (crown) -Protects against tooth decay -Irreplaceable Hypothesis -Coke causes the most damage because of its significant acid and sugar content. Materials -One (1) 250 ml can soda of Coke, Pepsi, Dr. Pepper, Sprite, Mountain Dew, and root beer (A&W brand) -Seven (7) large size uncracked hard boiled eggs -Seven (7) same size drinking glasses -Stop watch -Notepad -Pen -Marker for creating glass labels -White paper towel -Ruler Procedure 1) Choose a bright or well lit area to perform the experiment. 2) Gather all the materials on a table. 3) Using a marker, create labels for each soda and attach to each glass. 4) Assign one glass for each soda.
(Coke, Pepsi, Dr. Pepper, Root Beer, Sprite, Mountain Dew, Fanta) 5) Pour all of each can of 250 ml soda into the designated glass. 6) Carefully place one uncracked hard-boiled egg in each labeled glass filled soda. 7) Leave each glass alone for five hours. Variables Independent Variables: different sodas tested on submerged egg shells, different time intervals Dependent Variable: length and number of patchy discolorations created by sodas on each egg shell Controlled Variables: egg shells that represent tooth enamel, the amount of soda in each glass, the size of the glass, and the duration of each experiment Data/Graphs Coke -has a pH level of 2.5 (lowest) -contains 39 grams of sugar Pepsi -has a pH level of 2.6 -contains 41 grams of sugar Dr. Pepper -has a pH level of 2.89 -contains 41 grams of sugar Root Beer (A&W) -has a pH level of 4.0 -contains 46.5 grams of sugar Sprite -has a pH level of 3.2 -contains 39 grams of sugar Mountain Dew -has a pH level of 3.3 -contains 47 grams of sugar Fanta (Orange) -has a pH level of 3.0 -contains 52 grams of sugar Period 2 Honors Biology Diet Sodas -have a pH level of 3 to 3.5 -contain no sugar Results What happened:
-Significant differences between dark and light-colored sodas
-Coke had the earliest changes and most damage
-Dark colored sodas showed the most change.
-From the dark sodas, Pepsi showed the least damage. -Sugar and acids in soda cause tooth decay.
-Tooth enamel cannot be replaced.
-Acids eat away tooth enamel.
-There is no relationship between sugar and acid.
-Coke, with the least pH, is most acidic.
-Dark colored sodas cause the most damage and surface staining. What we learned: Results (cont.) Introduction -Decaying effects of soda
-Sugar and acid make soda harmful.
-The average American drinks 16 oz of soda daily.
-Project focuses on which soda causes most damage to tooth enamel
-Seven popular sodas used Conclusion -Only part of hypothesis was proven: acidity
-Coke caused the most damage on tooth enamel beacuse it has the lowest pH at 2.5, thus it is most acidic.
-Other part of hypothesis on sugar content was disproven.
-Sugar content is not directly related to acidity. Procedure (continued) 8) Set the time.
9) Check the eggs once every hour for five hours.
10) Record how quickly each soda is dissolving the egg shell.
11) After five hours, carefully remove each egg from the glass filled soda.
12) Put each egg on the white paper towel.
13) Note the results and observations.
14) Take a close up picture of each egg.
15) Make sure the whole egg is checked and examined for changes. Procedure (continued) 16) Measure (in cm) any lines, or count patchy discolorations.
17) Note the change in color of the egg shells and compare.
18) Note any other changes like cracks.
19) Allow eggs to dry.
20) Take more pictures of the eggs.
21) Hold each egg, and feel for changes in the surface.
22) Make sure all observations are written down to be charted, graphed, and analyzed. Graph 2 Table 3 Graph 3 Table 1 Graph 1 Recommendations -Determine the amounts of sucrose, glucose, and fructose.
-Determine the amounts of phosphoric, citric, and carbonic acid, and which contributes most to the pH.
-Test more and equal numbers of dark and light colored sodas. Experiment Video Table 2 Purpose The objective of our science experiment is to determine the effects of acid and sugar in soda on tooth enamel. Background Information -Soda was discovered in the 1700s.
-Scientists noticed mineral water in springs.
-Introduced a new form of refreshment
-Sodas contain a numerous amount of ingredients.
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