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Transcript of Jupiter
By: Angela and Aris
Jupiter has about 66 moons that are known.
In 1610 Galileo first pointed a telescope at the sky and discovered Jupiter’s 4 largest moons (Jupiter has around fifty moons) Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto (Now known as the Galilean moons). He recorded their movements around Jupiter.
This was the first discovery of an objects’ center of gravity focused on something other than Earth. It was a milestone favoring Copernicus ’heliocentric theory of the planets’ movement (along with the evidence from his telescope of the phases of Venus and the mountains of the moon). Galileo did not hide his support for Copernicus’ theory, but this support got him in trouble with the Inquisition (A Renaissance Catholic court instituted to seek out and prosecute heretics, [nineplanets.org Glossary]). Today anyone can recreate Galileo’s observations without fearing that they will be persecuted.
The Galilean moons have diameters greater than 1,900 miles. The other moons have diameters from 9 to 106 miles. Callisto and Ganymede, two of the Galilean satellites, are made with ice and rocky materials. The moons have many craters. Io has active volcanoes that could explode any minute.
The temperature of the top of Jupiter’s clouds (gases) is about -250°F which is 175°C. Beneath the top clouds of Jupiter is 34,000°F which is 19,000°C.
The temperature of Jupiter's atmosphere is not yet known by the scientists, but scientist's know Jupiter's surface is really hot. The core of Jupiter is about 43000°F which is 24000°C.
Jupiter sends strong radio radiation in two forms.
One form is a burst of radio radiation, and the other form is continuing as radio energy. Many astronomers think that radio radiation makes radiation belts. Radio Radiation also might be caused when the Satellite Io, is close to Jupiter, and a magnetic field flow through Io and Jupiter causing a burst of radio radiation.
Jupiter is named after the Roman god Jupiter, the equivalent of the Greek god Zeus. He is the ruler of the gods.
Jupiter is the closest planet to the sun in the outer planets, so Jupiter is the 5th closest planet to the sun. Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the sky after the sun , the moon, and Venus.
Out of all the eight planets, Jupiter is the largest planet. Jupiter’s diameter is 88,846 miles, and is about 11 times longer than Earth’s diameter. At the same time, 1000 Earths would fit in Jupiter.
All the planets in our solar system could fit into Jupiter. Jupiter is 480 million miles away from the sun, and 390 million miles away from Earth. It is the 4th brightest object in the sky, after the sun, Venus, and the moon.
Jupiter is about as large as a gas giant can get.
Jupiter is slightly denser than water, and 1/4 dense as the Earth.
Jupiter's thin ring's are made of fine dust particles, that are much fainter than Saturn's rings. The main ring is about 18 miles thick, and about 4,000 miles long.
Jupiter's ring system is made of three parts: a flat main ring, a halo on the inner side of the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which is on the outside of the main ring.
Flying to Jupiter
People started flying to Jupiter in the early 1970's. The US launched Pioneer 10 to Jupiter in 1972, and was the first space probe to fly by Jupiter. It was followed by Pioneer Saturn (also known as Pioneer 11), Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and the spacecraft Galileo orbited Jupiter for eight years.
Jupiter is 318 times larger than Earth. Jupiter's gravitational pull is much stronger than Earth's gravitational pull. For example, an 100 pound object on Earth would be 253 pounds on Jupiter.
Jupiter's gravity is very strong, which keeps Jupiter from expanding. If Jupiter was not a planet, but a star, Jupiter would keep expanding and it would be 80 times larger than it is now.
Many astronomers thought Jupiter was a star and not a planet. Galileo thought moons were orbiting Jupiter like the sun. Some astronomers thought Jupiter was a distant star.
Some scientists still believe that Jupiter is a star because of the temperature. The temperature can create nuclear explosions. Jupiter has a bulge on its atmosphere caused by its fast spinning. Jupiter also has a magnetic field.
Thermal image of Jupiter obtained by NASA Infrared Telescope Facility
Shadow of Ganymede
There is a large oval spot on Jupiter’s surface called the Great Red Spot. It is almost 350 years old. It is actually bigger than Earth. You can see this spot through all the gases on Jupiter, but over the millennial, it has existed its color has diminished greatly. The spot is 25,000 miles long, which is 3 times the length of Earth’s diameter. The width is about 20,000 miles.
The most notable marking on Jupiter is a large oval spot, or what is called the great Red Spot. The Red Spot is 8,700 miles wide and 25,000 miles long. It is definitely known to be observed in 1878 but was probably seen at an earlier point. Its color has gotten duller with the years, and except for a part of time in 1937 when its color was especially vibrant, but it has faded considerably. Only its outline remains definite.
The Great Red Spot
Jupiter's Radiation Belts
This photo shows Jupiter's gravitational pull
"Solar System Exploration: Planets: Jupiter: Overview." Solar System Exploration: Planets: Jupiter: Overview. NASA, 13 Dec. 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
"Jupiter." L Facts, Pictures and Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014
An image of Jupiter's rings
"Jupiter's Gossamer Ring." Jupiter's Gossamer Ring. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
"Watch Journey To The Planets Videos Online - National Geographic Channel - UK." National Geographic Channel. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
Jupiter's Orbit and Rotation
Jupiter is the closest planet to the sun in the outer planets, so Jupiter is the 5th closest planet to the sun.
Jupiter moves around the sun in an oval shaped path, which is also an elliptical orbit. The closest distance to the sun Jupiter gets is 460 million miles, and the farthest is 507 million miles. Jupiter takes 4,333 Earth days to orbit the sun once, or 11.83 Earth years.
Jupiter spins the fastest out of all the planets. It spins once every 9 hours and 55 minutes.
If you wanted to see Jupiter’s surface, it would be very hard. There are layers of dense clouds that make it hard to see Jupiter’s surface. The clouds are frozen ammonia and methane. Jupiter is mostly gas, but it has some liquid, and a small solid cores.
Jupiter has many belts and zones. The belts are caused by many gases that mix together.
Scientists do not know if there are any living things on Jupiter, but some scientists say microscopic organisms might live in the gases.
One day in Jupiter is only about 10 hours.
A year on Jupiter is 12 Earth years.
It takes 43 minutes for sunlight to reach Jupiter.
Ganymede is actually larger than Mercury.
Europa is believed to have an ice-covered liquid ocean.
Io is actually named after a girl. Zeus(Jupiter) fell in love with her and Zeus(Jupiter) accidentally turned her into a sheep. Hera(Juno) got jealous, so Io was scared, and ran all the way from the Athens to Egypt, and is said to be the first Egyptian Queen.
Jupiter is also known as the vacuum cleaner because Jupiter is frequently impacted by comets. In 1994, a broken comet hit Jupiter, and this was the first prediction and observation made by scientists that were correct.
When a comet called S-9 impacted Jupiter in 1994, it released the energy almost equivalent to 6 million nuclear bombs.
In 2009, a small comet hit Jupiter, making a spot as large as the Pacific Ocean.
The brown spots are spots impacted by comets.
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Jupiter by David M. Haugen
The World Book Encyclopedia
"Jupiter." The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995 ed. Vol. 11. Chicago: World Book, 1995. 198-200. Print.
Bram, Leon L., Robert S. Phillips, and Norma H. Dickey. Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1979. 291-92. Print.
Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia