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The Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (MTQ48)
Transcript of The Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (MTQ48)
What is Mental Toughness?
Natural or developed psychological edge that enables you to: cope with demands of a situation, be more consistent in remaining determined, focused, confident and in control under pressure (Jones, Hanton, & Connaughton, 2002).
Versatile construct that enables one to efficiently cope with stress and rebound from adverse circumstances (Crust, 2008).
4Cs Model: Challenge, Commitment, Control (emotional control), and Confidence (Clough et al., 2002).
Birthing the MTQ48
Who, when, where....
Peter, Keith, and Dan in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hull in England in 2002.
Reliability and Validity
Reliability assessed through completion by 600 athletes of various sports, reliability coefficient of 0.9.
Lack of internal reliability (Gucciardi, Hanton, & Mallett, 2012)
Construct validity related to optimism, self-image, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and stability (
value between 0.42 and 0.68).
Evidence for factorial validity with 8207 participants (442 athletes) (Clough, Crust, Early, & Nicholls, 2013).
Psychometric battle between Clough and friends (2013) and Gucciardi and friends (2013).
Administration & Scoring
MTQ48 Technical Manual + Licensed User Training
$700 for training + $23 for instrument
Suggested for business and sport settings
Can be administered individually or in groups
Overall MT score and one for each subscale
Takes ~15 minutes but no time limit
Scored by hand with range from 48 to 240
"Good" or "Bad" scores?
Strengths and Weaknesses
Potentially solid reliability
Brief, 48 questions
Instrument is better alternative to just assuming someone/group is mentally tough
Ability to focus on weakest of 4Cs
Controversy over psychometric value
Been used with only select populations and by a small group of researchers.
....Why? Purpose and Rationale:
How can one locate and foster "toughness" in athletes?
Presently provides valuable feedback for sport, business, performers, and the military.
Rooted in research in health psychology on hardiness as a buffer to external stressors and reactions to adversity (Kobasa, 1979)
Understanding mental toughness, and the ability to measure it can have all sorts of cool outcomes...
(Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002)
Similar to assessments in fields outside of sport and exercise psychology....
It started with a problem
are athletes mentally tough?
Potentially predict behavior
Evaluate the impact/validity of the measurement.
Not much out there...
Diaz (2013) found a mean score of 159
What does this mean???
Significantly more research/use of instrument needed... or more detective work.
Ultra-endurance, adventure racers, and Ironman Triathletes
Identify lesser strengths
Military: does it measure up to assessments of resilience?
Understand MT in context of flow, hardiness, resilience, optimism, and/or self-efficacy