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Development of Political Parties
Transcript of Development of Political Parties
Tom Wang First Party System Third Party System Now Special Thanks to Mr. Ralston
Noodletools 1787 Introduction
Throughout most of its history, American politics have been dominated by a two-party system. However, the U.S. Constitution didn't even mention anything about the political parties at the time it was signed in 1787. Americans invented political parties because they needed to gain support in a Republican system. The history of American political parties can be majorly divided into 5 stages. This presentation will only focus on the first three stages. Overview
Competing factions within the old Republican Party split into two new opposing parties during Andrew Jackson's presidency.
Jackson's faction, now known as Democrats, was rooted in the West and South and favored small national government.
Jackson's opponents, rooted in the Northeast, called themselves Whigs and favored government action to improve American society. Patterns It was a distinct party system.
It formed over a 15-year period that varied by state.
It was produced by leaders trying to win the presidency, with contenders building their own national coalitions.
Regional effects strongly affected developments, with the Adams forces strongest in New England, for example, and the Jacksonians in the Southwest.
For the first time two-party politics was extended to the South and West (which had been one-party regions). In each region the two parties were about equal—the first and only party system showing this.
Because of the regional balance it was vulnerable to region-specific issues (like slavery).
The same two parties appeared in every state, and contested both the electoral vote and state offices.
Most critical was the abrupt emergence of a two-party South in 1832-34 (mostly as a reaction against Van Buren).
The Anti-Masonic party flourished in only those states with a weak second party. Methods varied somewhat but everywhere the political convention replaced the caucus.
The parties had an interest of their own, in terms of the office-seeking goals of party activists.
The System brought forth a new, popular campaign style.
Close elections—not charismatic candidates or particular issues—brought out the voters.
Party leaders formed the parties to some degree in their own image. Historian Richard P. McCormick concluded in "The Second American Party System: Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era"(1966) Second Party System The Jacksonians, to be known as the Democratic Party, were the former Democratic-Republicans who aligned behind President Andrew Jackson. Democratic The Whig Party formed in 1833 of former National Republicans, as well as members of the Anti-Masonic Party. The death of several leaders, including Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, in addition to a growing divide over the policy of slavery, lead to the destruction of the Whig Party. The Whig Party remained a party until 1856, when it was officially declared dead. Whigs that did not join the Republican Party went to the Constitutional Union Party. Whig The National Republicans were former Democratic-Republicans who aligned behind John Quincy Adams, and against Andrew Jackson. The National Republican Party was absorbed by the Whig Party in the mid-1830s. National Republicans The Anti-Masonic Party formed in New York in 1828, and was based upon the growing anti-Freemason sentiment in the country. Many feared that the Freemasons were a secret society of power brokers and elitists. Some believed that the Freemasons sought to create a shadow government and murdered political opponents. The party lasted until approximately 1838 and was primarily absorbed into the Whig Party. Anti-Masonic The Nullifier Party was formed in South Carolina in 1828, and was based upon state's rights. They supported the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, and the concept of state nullification of federal laws within the borders of a state. The movement behind the party was fueled by both high taxation and an economic recession which hurt the southern states, and especially South Carolina. The party lasted until the end of the 1830s, when it was absorbed into the Democratic Party. Nullifier The implosion of the Democratic-Republican party, which resulted from the election of 1828, led to a new era in party politics. For the first time, the country saw the rise of more than two parties, some of which successfully obtained significant electoral results at the state and federal levels. The Liberty Party was formed in New York, and existed throughout the 1840s. They focused on the issue of eliminating slavery. They were a single-issue party that folded into the Free Soil Party in 1849. Liberty The American Republican Party was a short-lived anti-immigration party, which was founded in 1843. It changed its name to the Native American Party in 1845, and the remnants folded into the Know-Nothings in 1854, at the end of the "Second Party System". Native American The Know-Nothings were a political movement formed in the 1840s, from members of the Whig Party and the Native American Party. It was not successful until the 1850s, when they merged with the American Republican Party and renamed themselves the American Party. They then elected representatives to the House and Senate. Primarily, they were an anti-Catholic and pro-temperance organization. The party was dissolved in 1860, at the beginning of the "Third Party System," primarily absorbed into the Republican Party. Know-Nothing The Free Soil Party was formed in the late 1840s, and was the second anti-slavery party during the Second Party System. They took their members from anti-slavery members of the Democratic Party, the Whig Party, and the Liberty Party. This was a successful party, sending representatives to the House and Senate. They were a single-issue party that folded into the Republican Party around 1854. Free Soil The Anti-Nebraska Party was an off-shoot of the Know-Nothings (American Party) formed in 1854. They held a deep moral opposition to slavery, and were appalled by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. They only existed in 1854. Anti-Nebraska The Opposition Party was formed in 1854, and was a short-lived party which attempted to provide a compromise on the growing divisions over slavery. The party was successful in electing 100 members to the House of Representatives. The party essentially ended in 1858. Members were encouraged to join the last members of the Whig Party in the Constitutional Union Party. Some members joined the Conservative Party. Opposition The Constitutional Union Party is made up of former Whigs who wanted to avoid the dispute over slavery. They recognized "no political principles other than the Constitution of the country, the Union of the states, and the enforcement of the laws." Constitutional Union Republican Third Party System Whigs Democrats Support Leadership Compare Same people that supported the Federalists. Protestants and middle class. Small farmers, southern planters, urban laborers, and immigrant workers, frontier settlers. Henry Clay (favored the bank)
John Calhoun Andrew Jackson
Distrusted all banks and paper money. Ideological Perspective Liberty, independence, self-government Economic Revolution Praised growth and industrialization.
Supported economic expansion through corporations and credit.
Believed that the government should encourage the development of society through humanitarian reforms. Party variations:
Northern Whigs supported economic expansion and humanitarian reforms.
Southern Whigs supported economic expansion but not humanitarian reforms. Emphasize limited government to insure individual liberty.
Opposed the government to interfere too much.
Dislikes Humanitarian reformers (they interfere with individual liberty). Whigs Formed in opposition to Jackson's Democratic Party. Supremacy of Congress over the president.
Charged Jackson abusing executive power.
Webster and Clay supported The American System.
The party had two candidates elected president. Both died in office.
Torn apart by the question of whether slavery should expand. The American System is a new form of federalism that was supported by Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun and John Quincy Adams.
Supports high tariffs to protect American manufactures.
High public land prices to generate income.
Supports Bank of The United States for stabilizing money and controlling the states' banks.
System of Internal Improvements (roads and canals). Use all the tariff money to better link the Union. The Whig Pyramid William Henry Harrison was the governor of Indiana. He destroyed Tecumseh's forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Benefiting from the Panic of 1837, he was the first Whig president to be elected. Unfortunately, the 68-year-old Harrison caught cold while delivering a two-hour inaugural address in the freezing rain. He died barely a month later because of pneumonia, being the first president to die in office. General Zachary Taylor, an Indian fighter and hero of the Mexican War, won the election of 1948 and became president. He died after just one year and 127 days in office, however the cause was unknown. Democrats They originated from the anti-Federalists. (remember they opposed Hamilton's financial policies).
When the Democratic-Republican Party broke apart, the fraction that supported Jefferson, led by Andrew Jackson, became the Democratic Party. Strong president (frequently using his veto power.
Extend voting rights to nearly all white male.
Elected judges to write new state constitutions.
Supported manifest destiny.
Spoil system(rewarded supporters with jobs). Jacksonian Democracy Who are the Democrats? Guys you need to know Andrew Jackson was a lawyer in the frontier state of Tennessee. He later became a general of the army and defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814), and the British at the Battle of New Orleans (1815). He was the seventh president of the United States. He and his followers created the modern Democratic Party. His presidency was later know as Jacksonian Democracy. Thing you need to know about Jackson:
He is a Democrat!
He expanded the spoil system (awarding jobs to political supporters.
He supported a small and limited federal government.
He believed in a strong presidency.
He vetoed the renewal law of the national bank and made it collapse.
He issued the Indian Removal Act, migrating all the Native Americans across the Mississippi River.
Protected popular democracy and individual liberty.
The kitchen cabinet (trusted political allies who meet in the kitchen with Jackson to decide on issues). Martin Van Buren was the eighth president of the United States.
He was the key figure in organizing the Democratic Party.
He was the first president to be born an American citizen.
His first language was Dutch (He was the only president who didn't have English as his first language).
People blamed the Panic of 1837 on HIM!! Jackson's economic policy actually caused it. Henry Clay was a famous Congressmen from Kentucky. He served as the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Secretary of State.
Leading war hawk (those who supported war with Britain).
Originally proposed the American System (tariffs, roads and canals, national bank).
Opposed the Manifest Destiny policy of the Democrats.
He ran for the president 5 times.
Brilliant minded, created important compromises on the slavery issue. What are the two compromises? Famous Events Election of 1824 Jackson recieved the most electoral and popular votes. However he didn't receive the majority 131 electoral votes to win the election. The House of Representatives shall decide. The Federalist party has dissolved. Four Democratic-Republican candidates ran against each other. Speaker of the House Henry Clay strongly detested Andrew Jackson, so he called support for John Quincy Adams and made him won the election. John Quincy Adams immediately elected Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. Jackson was outraged. He and his followers accused Adams and Clay for making a "corrupt bargain". Election of 1828 The Democrats gained control of the Congress.
A huge victory for Jackson.
Marked the beginning of the Modern Democratic party. Nullification Crisis Caused by the Tariff of Abominations (high tariffs).
South Carolina called the tariffs unconstitutional.
Congress made it milder.
Under John Calhoun's support, the government of South Carolina declared the tariffs to be null and void within state borders. They also threatened to succeed.
Jackson responded in sending naval vessels and warned that South Carolina stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason."
Senator Henry Clay finally came up with a bill and reduced the tariffs.
South Carolina was amazed to realize that the other fellow Southern states didn't support it's actions.
This event showed that the union is already showing some signs of breaking. Jackson Battles the National Bank Tariffs Tariffs are good for the nation! It can help the domestic manufactures. The tariffs only favor the manufactures. It should only be used to generate revenue. The people has the right to veto it. The Union must maintain equal, every state shall obey the same law. Small state banks sprang up after the downfall. However when Jackson issued the "Specie Circular", which required buyers of government land to pay in gold and silver coins, the small banks all collapsed. They didn't have enough coins to exchange for the notes. Jackson's bank policy directly contributed to the Panic of 1837, a national economy depression. One of the most notable thing that Jackson did was battling the Second Bank of the United States. It was authorized by James Madison and was ruled constitutional by the supreme court.
He believed that the bank needs to be abolished because:
It concentrated the nation's financial strength in a single place.
It made the rich richer.
It had too much control over members of Congress.
It favored northeastern states over southern and western states.
Banks are controlled by a few selected people. He believed that the bank is only for the "elite circle", making them richer while the common people were ignored.
He eventually succeeded destryoing the bank by vetoing the its re-charter and withdrawing federal funds. In the 1850s, many Democrats adopted some Whiggish ideas. Old economic issues died out but new issues like slavery came. The disagreement over slavery eventually torn the Whigs apart. The Democrats had a complete dominance until the anti-slavery Republican party emerged, marking the beginning of the third party system. The End of the Second System Main points:
From about 1854 to the mid-1890s.
Developments in issues of nationalism, modernization, and race.
Republican domination at first after the war.
Democrats controlled the South after 1874. The major victory of the Republican Party in 1900 swept away most of the Third Party System problems. The pro-business Republicans dominated the presidency for almost thirty years. America is gradually becoming a world power. With a united Republican Party behind him, Lincoln won all Northern States. None of the Southern states voted for him. Both Lincoln and Breckinridge didn't campaign outside of their supporting states. Appealed to Border States. Constitutional Union wanted to preserve the Union by not taking sides. Republicans against slavery, but generally not as radical as abolitionists. Democrats divided over the slavery issue. North chose Douglas, South chose Breckinridge. Whig was dissolved. Election of 1860 Republicans generally were strict towards the South.
Radicals wanted to give freedmen full rights and wanted to punish the South. Moderates like Lincoln wanted to readmit the South as quickly and painlessly as possible. During the Election of 1864, Andrew Johnson, a Democrat, became VP in order to strengthen the idea of a Union party. After Lincoln's assassination, Johnson took over. Compared to Radical Republicans, he took a moderate approach to Reconstruction. He did not want to give freedmen full rights and tolerated black codes. He abused his veto. In 1866, the Republicans gained 2/3 majority in Congress. Johnson lost power. Grant won in 1868. Eight years later, in 1876, the Democrat candidate Samuel J. Tilden received more votes than Hayes, the Republican candidate.
Hayes won because the disputed votes were given to him. As a compromise, the Democrats gained control over Reconstruction in the South. Freedmen lost rights. Reconstruction Republican Democratic Members Ideals Divided into North and South Against slavery, represented northern and western states Voice for poor people, popular sovereignty, represented the South and whites. Made up of Ex-Whigs, Democrats, Free-soilers Constitutional Union Made up of conservatives. Keep the Union intact, neutral on slavery Federalist Democratic-Republican After the constitution was ratified, two groups of people started to have different ideas about how to run the government and about the future of the United States. Those two groups of people got together, and formed the first two American political parties, known as the Federalist Party and the Democratic Republican Party. The Federalist Party was founded by Alexander Hamilton. Born outside of the United States and married into a wealthy family, he believed in a strong national government led by wealthy, educated people, not average citizens who had no interest in public affairs. They also wanted a national bank. The Federalist Party’s idea for the economy was for it to be based on industrialization and businesses. According to the California social studies text book page 203, they “wanted to start a national bank where the government could safely deposit its money. The bank would also make loans to the government and businesses to promote industrialization.” Although they had this idea about how the government should run, not everyone agreed with it. The opposing group was known as the Democratic Republican Party. Democratic Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson. He was born into a wealthy plantation family and believed in strong state governments. He believed governments should be led by common people, and each citizen could work to better society. Democratic Republican Party’s idea for the government was to have people protect their own rights. According to them, the economy should be based on agriculture. On page 204 of the California social studies text book, “Both Jefferson and Madison believed that Hamilton’s plans for the economy gave too much power to the federal government. They also thought the U.S Constitution did not give Congress the power to create a bank.” Major Events In this election, John Adams (Federalist) ran against Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican). John Adams won the election by three electoral votes. He was the only Federalist president in U.S history. He did not follow his party’s ideas. The Federalist controlled congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. Those two acts were one of the big reasons why they lost support. The Alien Act increased the time it took for immigrants to become American citizens. The Sedition Act made criticizing the government illegal, which violated the right to “freedom of speech” and “freedom of press”. During his presidency, he avoided a war with France. Although at the time his party and the people were angry at this, his decision saved the young America from a disaster. The national bank helped the economy greatly. However, he was unpopular with his own party, and failed to win the second election. Jefferson ran for president, and won the election by eight more votes than John Adams. This was the first time that the government power had been peacefully transitioned from one party to another. Jefferson was a really successful president. During his presidential years, he made the Louisiana Purchase and made the U.S twice as large. Election of 1796 Election of 1800 War broke out between the United States and Britain. The two parties had different reactions to the war. Democratic Republican James Madison was the president during the war. The Federalist Party believed that they should not fight this war, while the Democratic Republicans supported the war. The Federalists decided to hold a convention discussing peace. However just as the convention was taking place, news came that peace was already negotiated in Europe. Although there was no clear winner, Americans believed that they had won and laughed at the Federalists. This made the Federalist Party lose even more support. The Democratic Republicans took control of the government. Their three presidents were successful, and gained them popularity. War of 1812 This was a period of prosperity and growth for America. Democratic Republican James Monroe was president during this time. The lives of Americans were getting better and better. This ended the First party system because the Federalist Party lost all of their supporters. The three Democratic Republican presidents did a really good job on making America Stronger. Thomas Jefferson made the Louisiana Purchase. James Madison led Americans through the War of 1812. Now, James Monroe led Americans into a better life. The Federalists passed the unpopular Alien and Sedition Acts. The Democratic Republicans did well and people believed that they would bring good to America. As for the Federalists, they fell apart. The Democratic Republican Party became the main party in America. Era of good feelings (End of the first party system) Lincoln was born in 1809 on the frontiers in Illinois. Raised in a poor family, Lincoln educated himself and became a country lawyer. He had a deep hatred towards slavery. He served one term in the House of Representatives. In 1858, Lincoln ran for Senate and met against Stephen Douglas, a Democrat who proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Although failing to become a Senator, he gained national recognition and became a main leader of the Republican Party in a series of debates with Douglas over slavery. Abraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson was born into poverty and self-educated. He was a Democrat and served in the Tennessee legislature and in the House. When the South seceded, he was Democratic-Senator from Tennessee. He was for the Union, but pro-slavery at the same time. He was nominated in 1864 as Vice President and took over Reconstruction after Lincoln was assassinated. Andrew Johnson Thanks for watching!