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Film making and editing-"I don't like when it's so quick you don't see what's happening. What's the point in having the shot?"Anne V Coates - Oscar-winning editor of Lawrence Of Arabia

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Saba Mu

on 30 December 2010

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Transcript of Film making and editing-"I don't like when it's so quick you don't see what's happening. What's the point in having the shot?"Anne V Coates - Oscar-winning editor of Lawrence Of Arabia

Their communication
lacks IMPACT The big
WHY What is
your product/service? Who is
your market? Who is
behind the company? Who is
your competition? What is
competitive advantage? TIP:
Be inspirational
By Saba Mutalik. My
storytelling services First this: "Toy Story 3"
1084 days of making Day 1: Creative team discuss the plot
and concept. Day 3: Screenwriter Michael Arndt begins with the scriptwriting wheras at the same time storyboard artists start drawing the storyboard with the director Lee Unkrich Day 36: "Character Design"-some are Hand-drawn,some are sculpted in clay after which "visual textures like fur,fabric are added to the form ,the step which can be called as SIMULATION" Day 123: "storyboards" are converted into "story reels",a no of pictues are presented in front of audience ."This is a crucial moment for the film" says Pixar President and cofounder Ed Catmull"Watching along with an auidence allows us to see what works and what doesn't" Day 380: "Voicing the script".Tom hanks visits the studio to voice the script.Every line is filled up with "different interpretation and emphasis",the reference of those expressions which aniamtors use "while animating the characters faces"
Link to the recording- clip>"http://www.makingof.com/posts/watch/1917/the-voice-cast-of-toy-story-3-part-1" Day 400: Color and textures are applied through "Shaders"p
Problem was to give that plastic effect to "woody and "buzz" which the two characters "Woody" were made of.Because ,"some plastics are slighlty translucent & they absorb light.Shaders used a Subsurface Scattering Algorithm toachieve that effect and make those characters believable." Day 533: "Movement of Pictures".Up to 1000 points of movement are assigned to Every character which animators modify and play with."Every morning team gathers together to watch the few seconds of the film from the day before" Day 806: "The beginning of technical challenges like simulating a wet bear,one of the complex challenges" Day 898: "The animators work day and night at their working bars or decorated offices to get the final output" "Day 907": "Rendeing begins with using the computer algorithms to get to the final frame"Average Frame Rate=24 frames per second which takes seven hour to render some can even take 39 hours.Pixar of computing time."The Pixar building houses have two massive render farms each of which contains hundreds of servers running 24 hours a day" Day 1070: "The movie is mostly done,the team has completed 25 of the film's sequences and is just completing the action scene that includes a runaway Model Train,smoke,dust clouds,force fields,lasers,mountainous terrain and a massive ridge explosion which has taken 27 artists four months to make the scene perfect" Day 1084: "With only weeks to go before the film is released,the audio mixers at Skywalker combine Dialog,music and sound effect"The characters,Woody,buzz and lotso make their way and it's not that easy to let them go,after four years of prdution process ."We don't ever finish a Film" Director Unkrich says.I could keep on making it better,we are just forced to release it." Production Pipeline Pixar Motion,After Effects,Fusion,Composite Final cut pro,Adobe premiere Future Based Augmented Reality Video Storage External Disc Drive Tape Disc Video
Formats SD,
2k formats Formats from
File-based Devices

(Log and Transfer Function-"one of the features of new FCP studio7")
like sony(XDCAM EX,AVCHD)
Panasonic(AVC-Intra,DVCPRO HD)
Canon- New ProRes codec options ProRes 422 (Proxy) offline editing ProRes 422 (LT) projects that require reduced file sizes at broadcast
quality, such as news, sports, and events. ProRes 4444 Compositing and digital
workflows that require
the highest-possible
image fidelity. "New speed change tools" "Redesigned Change Speed window"-
"Presets for ease in and ease out
retimed parts"
"Speed changes without affecting
the other surrounding clips"
The speed tool adjusts the speed
while dragging to extend or
shorten a clip. "Alpha transitions" "Apply matte by choosing any of
the transitions designed
by Apple"
"Creting custom transition using
any graphics program or
importing third party
options " "Closed captioning support" "Line 21 for SD and VANC
for HD video" "Preserve caption input while
capturing tape sources and
Output video with
captioning to tape
as well as to
formats for
web playback." "Automatic transfer" Saving setup time while transferring clips from a wide
range of file-based cameras like Panasonic P2
and Sony XDCAM."The files are automatically
copied to your media storage volumes
the moment your media is mounted.
"A new Log and Transfer option"
Offers to set up custom metadata
and add it to your assets in
a single step Other Features:- "Easy export"
"iChat Theater support" "Improved markers" "New timecode window" "Native AVC-Intra support" "Improved tabs" "Background exporting" "Global transitions" "Cinema Tools 4.5" "Faster media reconnecting
for workgroups" "Comprehensive matchframe
and reveal options" "Multi-Touch gesture support" "Display SD safe title area
inside HD" "Improved XML interchange" "Improved media management" "Log and transfer Improvements" "Optimized codec performance" "Improved render management" "Markers in multicam" "Timeline improvements" Other Softwares for video editing Adobe Premiere Pro series(Windows)
Movie maker(Windows)
Avid Xpress Pro studio HD(windows/Mac)
Sony Vegas(movie studio)(windows)
Nero vision Xtra/Nero video Premium HD(windows)
Media 100(mac)
Main Actor(Linux/Windows)
Pinnacle Videospin(windows)
iMovie(Mac) Capturing Props> the Toys story 3 team wanted
the nursery to look real with the movement
for which several charcters are kept on the shelves Rough idea of the film>Single frame sketch>
when the toys enter the Sunnyside Daycare Final Output>walls, clothing, faces—are sent through rendering software that calculates and controls light and shadow which also adds texture to Lotso’s fur, Barbie’s leggings, and the carpet. An average frame consumes more than seven hours of computing time to render. A more complicated scene like this one took eleven hours. 1 Digital version of the scene>deciding
color scheme and lighting of the scene. 2 3 5 Final touch and polishing>The amount of work and time spent on each character depends on its prominence in the final clip. Background characters are given simple textures and basic movements, whereas Lotso and Woody the heroes of the scene—are characterized with attention 4 Pre- 1900 Year ,event and significance "300s B.C.
The Greek Aristotle was the first to observe and describe how he saw a light after-effect: a persistent image (that slowly faded away) after he gazed into the sun." "65 B.C.
The Roman poet and philosopher Titus Lucretius Carus described the principle of persistence of vision - the optical effect of continuous motion produced when a series of sequential images were displayed, with each image lasting only momentarily. " "130 A.D.
The Greek astronomer and geographer Ptolemy of Alexandria discovered (and proved) Lucretius' principle of persistence of vision." "late 1790s
Belgian optician and showman Etienne Gaspard Robertson's Phantasmagoria - a kind of amusement 'horror show' designed to frighten audiences that became popular in Europe. He produced the show with a 'magic lantern' on wheels (which he called a Phantascope or Fantascope), usually out of view of the audience, to project ghostly-looking, illusory images that changed shape and size, onto smoke or onto a translucent screen." "1820s
The Frenchman Peter Mark Roget (famed as the author of Roget's Thesaurus) rediscovered the persistence of vision principle." "1832-34
The Belgian scientist Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau, who had studied the phenomenon of persistence of vision, developed a spindle viewer or spinning wheel called a phenakistoscope (aka Fantascope or Magic Wheel), the first device that allowed pictures to appear to move - and considered the precursor of an animated film (or movie). [The device was simultaneously invented by Austrian Simon von Stampfer.] " "1834
William George Horner invented the first zoetrope (which he called a daedalum or daedatelum), based upon Plateau's phenakistoscope. It was a very crude, mechanical form of a motion picture 'projector' that consisted of a drum that contained a set of still images. When it was turned in a circular fashion, it created the illusion of motion. " "1872-1878
British photographer Eadweard Muybridge took the first successful photographs of motion, producing his multiple image sequences analyzing human and animal locomotion. California senator Leland Stanford commissioned Muybridge to determine whether the 4 legs of a galloping horse left the ground at the same time, so he set up 24 still cameras along a racetrack. As a horse ran by the cameras, the horse broke strings which were hooked up to each camera's shutter, thereby activating the shutter of each camera, capturing the image and exposing the film. Soon after, the photographs were projected in succession with a viewing device called a Zoogyroscope (aka Zoopraxiscope). Viewing the photos in sequence comprised a primitive movie." "1882
Etienne Jules Marey in France developed a chronophotographic camera, shaped like a gun and referred to as a "shotgun" camera, that could take twelve successive pictures or images per second." "1886
Pioneering British inventor William Friese-Greene collaborated with John Rudge to make an enhanced magic lantern, one of the earliest motion picture cameras and projectors, termed a Biophantascope, to project photographic plates in rapid succession. He claimed to have sent Thomas Edison (who denied receiving anything) details of his camera designs, but received no replies. In 1890, Friese-Greene received a patent for his 'chronophotographic' camera, capable of taking up to ten photographs per second using perforated celluloid film, but his experiments met with limited success, unlike Edison. However, he became the first man to ever witness moving pictures on a screen." "1887
Nitrate celluloid film (a chemical combination of gun cotton and gum camphor) was invented by American clergyman Hannibal W. Goodwin." "1888
Edison filed his first caveat (a Patent Office document) in which he declared his work on future inventions, anticipating filling out a complete patent application for his Kinetoscope and Kinetograph (a motion picture camera)." "1888
French inventor Louis Augustin Le Prince developed a single-lens camera which he used to make the very first moving picture sequences (of traffic on a Leeds, England bridge), by moving the film through a camera's sprocket wheels by grabbing the film's perforations. Presumably, it was the first movie ever shot and then shown to the public." "1889
Henry Reichenbach developed (and patented) durable and flexible celluloid film strips (or roll film) to be manufactured by the pioneer of photographic equipment, George Eastman, and his Eastman Company." "1890
William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, commissioned by Thomas Alva Edison, built the first modern motion-picture camera and named it the Kinetograph. " "1889 or 1890
William K.L. Dickson filmed his first experimental Kinetoscope trial film, Monkeyshines No. 1, the only surviving film from the cylinder kinetoscope, and apparently the first motion picture ever produced on photographic film in the United States. It featured the movement of laboratory assistant Sacco Albanese, filmed with a system using tiny images that rotated around the cylinder." "1891
Thomas Edison and his assistant W.K.L. Dickson also developed or invented the Kinetoscope, a single-viewer peep-show device in which film was moved past a light. The first public demonstration of motion pictures in the US using the Kinetoscope occurred at the Edison Laboratories to the Federation of Women’s Clubs on May 20, 1891. The very short film’s subject in the test footage, titled Dickson Greeting, was William K.L. Dickson himself, bowing, smiling and ceremoniously taking off his hat. Edison filed for a patent for the Kinetoscope in 1891, granted in 1893. On Saturday, April 14, 1894, a refined version of Edison's Kinetoscope began commercial operation." "June, 1892
The Limelight Department, one of the world's first film studios, was officially established in Melbourne, Australia. In the next nine years, it produced arguably the first feature-length film (a series of 13 films titled Soldiers of the Cross (1900) delivered as a 'multi-media' presentation of songs, slides, films and scripture) and documentary film (the Federation of Australia ceremony (January 1, 1901)) in the world." "1893
Edison constructed the world's first motion picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey, a Kinetograph production center nicknamed the Black Maria (slang for a police van), on February 1, 1893, at a cost of $637.67. Construction was completed by May, 1893. Many major show-business performers would soon star in Edison films made at the Black Maria, including "Strong-Man" Eugene Sandlow, "High-Kicker" Ruth Dennis, and performers from the Barnum & Bailey Circus and Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (Annie Oakley and 'Buffalo Bill' Cody)." "1894 Fred Ott's Snee
ze (aka Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze), was one of the first series of films made in Edison's Black Maria and noted for the first medium-closeup. It became the first film officially registered for copyright on January 7, 1894. " "April 14, 1894
The first Kinetoscope parlor, consisting of a row of coin-operated kinetoscopes (single-viewer, peep show device, for films produced with the Kinetograph camera) opened at 1155 Broadway (in a converted shoe store) in New York City for business on April 14, 1894 -- it was called the Holland Brothers' Kinetoscope Parlor. The first commercial presentation of a motion picture took place here. The mostly male audience was entertained by a single loop reel depicting clothed female dancers, sparring boxers and body builders, animal acts and everyday scenes. Soon, peep show parlors were set up in penny arcades, hotel lobbies, and phonograph parlors in major cities across the US." "1894-1895
The earliest color hand-tinted films ever publically-released were Annabelle Butterfly Dance (1894), Annabelle Sun Dance (1894), and Annabelle Serpentine Dance (1895) featuring the dancing of vaudeville-music hall performer Annabelle Whitford (known as Peerless Annabelle) Moore, whose routines were filmed at Edison's studio in New Jersey. Male audiences were enthralled watching these early depictions of a clothed female dancer (sometimes color-tinted) on a Kinetoscope - an early peep-show device for projecting short films." "March 22, 1895
The first public testing and demonstration of the Lumieres' camera-projector system (the Cinematographe) in their basement. During the private screening - a trial run for their public screening later in the year (see below), the Lumieres caused a sensation with their first film, Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory (La Sortie des Ouviers de L'Usine Lumiere a Lyon), although it only consisted of an everyday outdoor image - factory workers leaving the Lumiere factory gate for home or for a lunch break." "Sept-Oct, 1895
C. Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat projected Kinetoscope films at the Cotton States Exposition, Georgia USA, using their Phantascope projector." "1895
In the early 1890s, Edison and Dickson also devised an early prototypical sound-film system called the Kinetophonograph or Kinetophone - a precursor of the 1891 Kinetoscope with a cylinder-playing phonograph (and connected earphone tubes) to provide the unsynchronized sound. The projector was connected to the phonograph with a pulley system, but it didn't work very well and was difficult to synchronize. The first known (and only surviving) film with live-recorded sound made to test the Kinetophone was the 17-second Dickson Experimental Sound Film (1894-1895). It was formally introduced in 1895, but soon proved to be unsuccessful since competitive, better synchronized devices were also beginning to appear at the time. Edison's attempt to combine the phonograph and motion pictures failed commercially." "1895
The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots (1895) contained the first special effect (in-camera), reportedly, of the controversial execution (decapitation) of Mary, Queen of Scots (Robert Thomae) on the execution block, using a dummy and a trick camera shot (substitution shot or "stop trick"). In the short sequence, Mary knelt down, and put her head on the block as the executioner raised a large axe. When the axe was brought down, her head rolled off the chopping block to the left - where the executioner picked it up in the final frame and held it up." "1896
The Kiss (1896) (aka The May Irwin Kiss) was the first film ever made of a couple kissing in cinematic history. May Irwin and John Rice re-enacted a lingering kiss for Thomas Edison's film camera in this 20-second long short, from their 1895 Broadway stage play The Widow Jones. It became the most popular film produced that year by Edison's film company (it was filmed at Edison's Black Maria studio, in West Orange, NJ), but was also notorious as the first film to be criticized as scandalous and bringing demands for censorship." "1898
The Spanish-American War drew camera operators to Cuba, but they were shut out by the U.S. Army. Since they could not capture the battles on film, many went into studios and created them using models and painted backdrops -- the start of scale-model effects." "1899
The American Mutoscope Company, founded in 1895, changed its name to the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company." 1.Timeline of Greatest Film History Milestones and Turning Points
(by decade and year) Year ,event and significance 2. The horror Timeline "1235
An order comes out of the Vatican, authorising the commencement of an Inquisition to re-establish the orthodoxy of the faith. The charge of heresy soon becomes entangled with the charge of witchcraft, and in this form took until the seventeenth century to die away." "1307 - 1321
La Comedia, or The Divine Comedy as it came to be known, of Dante Alighieri is written in Italy. This semi-autobiographical poem sets forth one of the most influential descriptions of Hell in the literature, though Dante's vast and intricate plan has, in the public eye, been superseded by Milton's vision [1667]. Even less well-known are the two sections after Inferno that complete the poem, Purgatorio and Paradiso.

Nothing ere I was made was made to be
Save things eterne, and I eterne abide;
Lay down all hope, you that go in by me.
-- trans. Dorothy L Sayers" 1456
Vladislav Basarab of Transylvania gains the crown of Wallacia for the first time (until 1462, and again briefly in 1468). From his father he earned the nickname 'Dracula', son of the Dragon, but he earned for himself the name Vlad the Impaler, for his favourite method of execution. Despite a large amount of slander by his political opponents, many of the tales of his cruelty were true (he is said to have killed over 40,000 people in his reign). He was also a staunch defender of Christendom from the Turkish threat.
The first edition Danse Macabre is published in Paris by Guyot Marchant. The verses and illustrations are taken from the murals adorning the Cemetery of the Innocents. The first set of couplets, by an unknown author, deal with death coming to the forty stations of men. The matching verses for women are credited to Martial d'Auvergne." "1486
The first edition of the Malleus Maleficarum is produced in Germany by the Dominican inquisitors Hienrich Institoris (aka Henry Kramer) and Jakob Sprenger. Literally 'the Hammer of Witches', it codified the form of belief in witchcraft that spread, through fourteen editions by 1520, throughout Europe. It contributed enormously to the witch craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries in which thousands of people were tortured and killed." "1580s
An incredible series of gruesome plays jostle each other on the stages of England. The first is traditionally Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy (1585) followed by Christopher Marlowe's Tamburlaine (1587), Dr Faustus [1587-1589] and William Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus (1594). Shakespeare's Hamlet (1600) and Macbeth (1605) are also morbid little pieces of some note. Cyril Tourneur's The Revenger's Tragedy (1607) and John Webster's The Duchess of Malfi (1613) are the latter examples, and indeed the last examples of death portrayed in front of an audience in European theatre until Victor Hugo's Hernani in 1730." "1587 - 1589
A semi-fictional biography of a Johannes Faustus, scholar and reputed magician, is published in Germany. Christopher Marlowe reads the English translation and creates his play The Historie of the Damnable Life, and Deserved Death of Doctor Iohn Faustus. This is the prototype of the Mad Scientist, who sells his soul for knowledge [1818]. The tale was more or less directly retold by Goethe in 1808 and Charles Maturin in 1820. Goethe's version was adapted as an opera by Charles Gounod, libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carre, in 1859." 1720 - 1740
The heyday of Bach, during which he writes his massive Toccata and Fugue in D minor, little realising that this gloomy little organ piece will appear as the sound-track to a James Caan movie (Rollerball in fact, Norman Jewison, 1975). Even without this filmic application, this piece is quite capable of evoking funereal atmosphere within the first few notes of that ominous central motif. -- Tristan Riley

With the Industrial Revolution and a suddenly-educated (and over-crowded) public, horror adapted into a more visceral and immediate field. The result was the Penny Blood (known as Penny Dreadfuls to their critics) and the stage equivalent, the Penny Gaff. The earliest and most influential of the publishers was one Edward Lloyd, who started with Thomas Prest's The Calendar of Horrors in the '30s, and then evolved the more recognisable form. Prest was also responsible for Sweeney Todd, The Demon Barber (first published as The String of Pearls in 1847, and performed on stage in the same year. [1980s]), the only character created in the period still being used. Varney the Vampire, or, the Feast of Blood, by James Malcolm Rymer, 1845, has had some influence on the vampire sub-genre and a possible companion piece, Wagner the Werewolf was written in 1846 by George Reynolds. 'It was thought at the time that "Penny Dreadfuls" were the origin of all youthful crime, and parents not only banned them, but, when discovered, burned them without mercy'" "1868 - 1869
Robert Browning writes The Ring and the Book, a macabre study of a man killing his wife, all based on a yellowing legal paper he had come upon in 1860. It is still the longest narrative poem in English literature. Browning is most noted for his dramatic monologues dealing with madness and obsession, including Childe Rolande to the Dark Tower Came [1974] and Porphyria's Lover" "1880s
This decade saw a movement in France known successively as L'Esprit Décadent and Symbolisme. The writers that typified it, the earlier Charles Baudelaire, Joris Karl Huysmans (A rebours (Against the Grain), 1884), La Bas (Down Here), 1891) and Guy de Maupassant (La Horla, 1886), produced some of the finest works of the European macabre. The movement was violently opposed to the restraint of resemblance in art, and of morals or religion in anything that would prevent the experience of l'horreur et l'extase de la vie, as Baudelaire wrote in Les Fleurs du Mal (The Flowers of Evil), which upon printing in 1857 was seized, and six of the poems banned. Extremes were sought, of terror, pleasure and pain. Huysman's A rebours appears by implication in Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Grey, as the symbol and instrument of ultimate foreign corruption. To explain, the poet Paul Verlaine said "It is made of a mixture of the carnal spirit and the sad flesh, and of all the violent splendours of the declining (La Bas) Empire." "
In this decade, and into the next one, the Grand Guignol flourished on the Paris stage (and was still around a lot later). The term originally referred to a puppet (possibly the work of one Laurent Mourquet a century before), but came to refer to brief plays based around violence, murder, rape, ghostly apparitions and suicide. There was indeed a Théâtre du Grand Guignol, but the art-form was most prominent in Montmartre. London also played host to several seasons over the next fifty years, in a less intense form, notably in 1920-22." "1910s
A number of German films were made in this decade using the premise of artificial creatures. They include Der Golem (Heinrich Galeen, 1914), Der Golem (Paul Wegener and Carl Boese, 1920, 'its splendid sets, performances and certain scenes all being clearly influential on later Hollywood films, especially Frankenstein' [3]), Homunculus (Otto Rippert, 1916) (actually a serial totalling 401 minutes -- 'the most popular serial in Germany during WW I, even influencing the dress of the fashionable set in Berlin' [5]) and Alarune (filmed at least three times, firstly in 1918 by Eugen Illes). Metropolis [1931], of the next decade, also fits the pattern and gives us Rotwang the Inventor, perhaps the earliest, and certainly a still effective, cinematic mad scientist. A variation (and an incredibly influential one at that) was provided by Robert Wiene in 1919 with The Cabinet of Dr Caligari. In this case the entire landscape was artificial, created in the mind of a madman."
The German director Friedrich Murnau shoots Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Gravens and is immediately sued by the Stoker estate [1897] (who probably hadn't heard of the 1921 Hungarian Drakula -- and that's all we know as well). This is despite substantial changes to the source (a habit taken up by later screen-writers), enough to count as a different story. It was remade with lots of rats in 1979 by Werner Hertzog."
This was the decade of the Universal monster movies, where 'the impossible took place in a tight, false world of studio-built landscape, where every tree was carefully gnarled in expressionistic fright, every house cunningly gabled in gothic mystery, every shadow beautifully lit into lurking terror' [13]. Tod Browning's Dracula started it all and became the money-spinner of 1931 for the studio [1927]. 1932 saw James Whale's Frankenstein [1910], introducing the man who ousted Lugosi as the studio's resident ghoul, Boris Karloff (whose much-repeated make-up was created by Jack Pierce) [1974]. Frankenstein was also the year's top grosser, whereas Karl Freund's The Mummy in '33, also starring Karloff, did not do so well financially. However, the plethora of sequels kept them busy for quite some time. The Wolf Man (George Waggner) blitzed the box-office in '41, introducing Lon Chaney Jr. in his most famous role" "1939 - 1945
The British Board of Film Censors banned the screening of horror films, both local and imported, for the duration on the grounds they would affect morale. The movies they did let through were generally edited out of all recognition. It is interesting that during this period, one of the most popular British radio serials was John Dickson Carr's Appointment with Fear (1943); a weekly short dramatisation with a host known as the Man in Black (played by Valentine Dyall). While some Americans had similar sentiments (Variety regarded The Wolf Man [1930s] as 'dubious entertainment at this particular time' [91]) the public proved them wrong". 1950s
The main action this decade, in the cinema at least, was science fiction, but most of it fits snugly within this assembly. It hadn't taken long after World War II for another conflict to appear and these films were a telling indication of Cold War tension (and, by the way, of the rush of UFO sightings that began in earnest in 1947), in a decade 'in which anxiety, paranoia and complacency marched hand in hand' [5]. The themes were internal invasion, corruption and paranoid fantasies. The classic Invaders From Mars (William Cameron Menzies, 1953) and It Came From Outer Space (Jack Arnold, 1953) are early examples (though, really, the first sign was Spencer Gordon Bennet and Fred Brannon's The Purple Monster Strikes (1945)), and The Thing [1951] and Invasion of the Body Snatchers [1956] are probably the best of the breed. Only in War of the Worlds (Byron Haskin, 1953 [1896]) and Earth versus the Flying Saucers (Fred F. Sears, 1956) were large scale invasions portrayed. Naturally enough, post-holocaust movies started to appear, and it was also the decade of the monster movie, giant ants, silly robots, hairy beasts (and mixtures of the two), Neanderthal men, lizard-skin girl-lusting critters and on and on (Jack Arnold's The Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954) is the best example), mostly the product of science gone wrong. Mind you, the Japanese had their own thoughts on that subject
Alfred Hitchcock 'apparently had the time of his life' [33] directing his most successful film, Psycho, based on [1959] and forevermore typecasting Anthony Perkins. It was followed by various sequels (number 2 is rather good) and a telemovie, Bate's Motel (Richard Rothstein, 1987). An incredibly prolific director, Hitchcock is regarded as possibly the master, and definitely unique, in the field of psychological horror. His distinctive style can be found as early as 1926 (The Lodger) and as late as 1972 (Frenzy, 'a closed and coldly negative vision of human possibility' [136]). Other works include Vertigo (1958, adapted from D'entre les Morts by Pierre Boileau and Thomas Narcejac, though the book was written specifically for Hitchcock) and 'The Birds' (1963, based on Daphne du Maurier's story. People still haven't stopped using Hitchcock's imagery in their own films" "1970s
This is the decade where film really started to see how far it could go in terms of gritty and sordid realism as America reeled from the images and their eventual loss of the Vietnam War. As Robert de Niro so prosaically put it: 'Each night... I have to clean the come off the back seat. Some nights I clean off the blood.' Outside the genre, violent movies were drawing the crowds, the like of Taxi Driver, The Godfather and The Deer Hunter, following on from 1967's Bonnie and Clyde. It was also the decade of the (s)exploitation movie, though for the horror fan the most notable of these is Spermula, by its title alone" "1980s
This is when 'the tide ebbed', certainly in the genre's biggest crowd-puller, the cinema. Horror was losing a lot of its mainstream appeal, becoming the domain of the teenager, whereas the grittiness of the seventies became the cartoon violence and escapism of the eighties. The ever-increasing realism of special effects led in one direction to movies where watching flying bits of body became the point, though there are more than a few examples of the power of the medium in capable hands. Despite this, the horror novel had now become firmly established with both quality work and a plethora of formularised shocks (Dean R. Koontz being a prime example). Along the way the British 'mature-age' comic industry came into its own, creating its own cult following " "1990
Twin Peaks, created by David Lynch and Mark Frost, proved that horror can still be successful on television, though it was eventually suspended due to a lack of ratings. The show ran for thirty episodes over two seasons and was followed by a rather good (if not quite as expected) movie in 1992. The show built on a great many sources, including the dramas Laura (Otto Preminger, 1944) and Born to Kill (Robert Wise, 1947 -- featuring a victim called Laura Palmer), and has even been seen as a study of Marilyn Monroe's death. While Mark Frost has since became a successful novelist (starting with The List of 7), David Lynch, remains one of America's most innovative film-makers, with works such as Eraserhead (1977), Blue Velvet (1986) and Mulholland Drive (2001)."
This year, the neo-realism bubbling under the surface of the decade became mainstream, and the results were extraordinary. David Fincher's Fight Club and Sam Mendes' American Beauty were non-compromising, non-genre cinema made with clarity. Of course, there has never been a lack of intelligent drama, but these share with horror the sense of danger and wonder in the transgression of limits. There were a number of direct precedents, such as Fincher's earlier work (in particular Se7en, 1995) and Happiness (Todd Solondz, 1998), and numerous other signs as well [1990s]. US television drama was pushing new boundaries, and works like Being John Malkovich (Spike Jonze) showed a similar attitude with more fanciful fare. The writer of American Beauty, Alan Ball, went on to do the series Six Feet Under (but we prefer The Sopranos)." 4. Costume design for "Black Swan"-
"The ballet-inspired psychological horror starring Natalie Portman and Mila Kunis and directed by Darren Aronovsky looks set to ruffle a few feathers (chuckle) if the hype building towards the release is anything to go by.The designer Amy Westcott chatting behind the scenes about the costumes in the parts of the film that weren’t created by the Rodarte sisters, Kate and Laura Mulleavy - who made the fantasy tutus – although they are on here too."
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