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Words Their Way Primary

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by

Debi Fournier

on 18 April 2014

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Transcript of Words Their Way Primary

What makes a good speller?
Examining words
through exploration and discovering ways to categorize and
sort
these words in ways that make sense to them.
Instead
of Spelling Rules/Exceptions to the Rules.
Spelling at Their "Just Right Level"
Research has proven,
spelling is

developmental
: Students learn to spell in
stages.
Using high frequency word lists, Spell Well, Dolch or other word lists expose students to
spelling before they are ready and actually
creates the "bad speller."
3rd: Sort Words into Families
Words Their Way
Good Speller or Bad Speller?
What was
a personal
experience
you had with spelling as an
elementary
student?
1st: Take a Spelling Inventory
2nd: Differentiate student lists
at THEIR Developmental Levels
Student instruction should be centered
on what our students are

"using but confusing."
And play Word-sorting Games
Kindergarten initial word sort
(Emergent Spelling Stage)
`
Example
When students learn to make
their own
generalizations
about words.
They learn regularities, patterns and conventions...
Assess Understanding
of Word Families
Weekly word tests can check student progress and understanding of word families.
But you should ONLY test the word families that student is working on. They should NOT be full "spelling tests."
For example:
Say a student is working on words with CK at the end of the word. If you test them with the word SPECK and they spell it as SECK, this word is NOT WRONG! The student shows understanding of the word family that he or she is working on. (This student will need to work on beginning consonant blends a different week.)
“Looking at a child’s spelling gives us a window into that child’s word knowledge…Spend some time sitting beside your students and looking through the window that their spellings provide.”

--Bear, Donald R. et al. Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Learning (2008). Pg 48.
Pictures are appropriate for sound sorts because they don’t deal with printed language, though printed words can also be used for sound sorts. The types of sound sorts are:

Picture sorts —used to develop phonological awareness


Word sorts —words can also draw attention to sound, such as with long/short vowel sorts

Blind sorts —picture examples are used as categories so that students can develop an understanding on their own, rather than relying on the printed name of the sort
Word Study Activities:
Sound Sorts
This is the last stage in the developmental model.
Most D.R. spellers are in middle school, high school, and college though development continues throughout adulthood.
Students build on and expand a wide vocabulary.
Spelling errors deal with conventions of affixation and root constancy across related words.
Students examine how words share common derivations and related roots and bases. They discover that meaning and spelling of parts of words remains constant across different but derivationally related words.
Derivational Relations Stage
This stage is often achieved in upper elementary and middle school years.
Students are often between 9 and 14 years old.
They correctly spell most one-syllable short- and long-vowel words
Spelling experimentation shifts to the orthographic conventions of preserving pattern-to-sound relationships at the place where syllables meet.
Students consider where syllables and meaning units meet at their juncture: examine multi- syllabic words.
Syllables and Affixes Stage
Students have a sight word vocabulary of 200-400 words.
Students exhibit automatic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and short-vowel patterns; allows for independent reading.
It begins as students transition into independent reading late in first grade and expands into second and third grade.
Struggling readers/writers may not move into this stage until much later.
Within Word Pattern Stage
This stage encompasses the time when students are first taught to read.
The name reflects students’ dominant approach to spelling—by using the names of the letters in connection with the alphabetic principle.
Students move from partial to full phoneme segmentation; spellings thus become more complete.
It is typically observed during kindergarten and first-grade years.
Letter Name-Alphabetic Stage
Involves the writing efforts of students who are not reading conventionally
Includes the time before students have made the conventional letter to sound connection in a left-to-right sequence.
Age range of 0-5 years. Many kindergarteners are emergent spellers at the beginning of the year.
Emergent spelling ranges from random marks to actual letters that have no sound relationships
Students are pre-phonetic spellers: lack of correspondence to sound when writing
Emergent Stage
Emergent
Letter-Name Alphabetic
Within Word Pattern
Syllables and Affixes
Derivational Relations
Stages of Spelling Development
Independent level: what students do correctly, on their own.
Instructional level: what students “use but confuse.” Instruction is most helpful at this stage.
Frustration level: what is absent in students’ spelling. Concepts are too difficult and instruction is not appropriate.
Levels of Learning
Alphabet—deals with the relationship between letters and sounds; the first layer of orthographic development.
Pattern—because there isn’t a letter for every sound, patterns guide groupings of letters to represent sounds under different conditions.
Meaning—groups of letters can represent meaning directly; builds on knowledge of meaning parts and their derivations.
Layers of English
Based on research about the importance of developmental spelling and a knowledge of “how words work”
Organized around five stages and instructional levels of spelling development
About Words Their Way™
Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction, 4th ed.
Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, Johnston
Word Study for Phonics, Spelling and Vocabulary Instruction
Refer to the Words Their Way™ Classroom Implementation Resource Guide for descriptions and other activities.
Teacher-Directed Sorts
Student-Centered Sorts
Guess My Category
Writing Sorts
Word Hunts
Brainstorming
Repeated Sorts
Speed Sorts
Draw and label/Cut and paste
Sort Variations
Meaning influences the spelling of words. May include: homophone and homograph sorts, or roots, stems, and affix sorts.

Concept sorts —a good way to link vocabulary to conceptual understanding. Appropriate for all ages; particularly useful for English Language Learners.


Meaning sorts related to spelling —homophones are words that sound alike but have different spellings; homographs have same spellings but different sounds. Record sorts so students have a record of them for future use!
Word Study Activities:
Meaning Sorts
Pattern sorts involve sorting the printed words to differentiate patterns in spelling, such as with word families, vowels, syllable juncture, etc.

Picture sorts —pictures are not appropriate for these sorts, unless used at the top as a category “name”


Word sorts —the mainstay of pattern sorts


Writing sorts —students record their sorts into a Word Study notebook. A question mark can be used as the header of an oddball category.
Word Study Activities:
Pattern Sorts
Types of Sorts
Instructional Practices
Word study is developmental—activities match the developmental, or instructional, level of the individual child.
Word study follows the continuum of word knowledge. Most students follow the same continuum, but possibly at different rates.
The Basis for Word Study
The authors describe two basic principles of word study:
Students’ learning of spelling and vocabulary is based on their developmental or instructional level.
Students’ learning is based on the way they are naturally inclined to learn, on their natural course of conceptual learning.
Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, Johnston, 2004, p. 27
Fundamental Principles
Writes fluently with expression and voice. Experiences different writing styles and genres. Writing shows personal problem solving and reflection.
Approaching fluency, more organization, several paragraphs
Word-by-word writing, may write a few words or lines
Pretend write
Reads fluently with expression. Develops a variety of reading styles. Vocabulary grows with experience, reading, and writing.
Approaching fluency, some expression in oral reading
Read aloud, word-by-word fingerpoint reading
Pretend read
Advanced
Derivational Relations
Intermediate
Syllables And Affixes
Transitional
Within Word Pattern
Beginning
Letter Name-Alphabetic
Reading and Writing Stages:
Emergent
Words Their Way Bringing Reading and Writing Together
Traditional Spelling
Explicit skill instruction
Systematic scope and sequence
Repeated practice
Rote drill and memorization
Little transference or critical thinking
Retention only for “Friday’s test”
Word Study
Explicit skill instruction
Systematic scope and sequence
Feature analysis
Authentic repeated practice
Hands-on learning
Higher level of transference due to critical analysis of words
Accurately use word patterns studied in daily writing.
Why Word Study?
Letter Name Alphabetic Sorts
http://educationextras.com/LetterNameAlphabeticSorts.html
Say the word
Say the family
Sort the word into the column
Score student inventories.
When a student misses 2 or more words within a particular spelling stage, that is their stage of development. Instruction should be focused here.
Once you have scored the inventories, and assigned each student to a spelling stage (Emergent, Letter Name-Alphabetic, Within Word Pattern, etc.) then you group your students and begin instruction from the specific text for that stage.
Sandy's chart - continuum of support p. 60
Spelling Stage Expectations by Grade Level
WRITING!
Scheduling -
How will you make it work?

examples
p. 46
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