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Copy of Copy of MARCEL PROUST Y LA MEMORIA INVOLUNTARIA

Teoría y práctica de la memoria involuntaria según Marcel Proust
by

Saeid Kadkhodaei

on 2 November 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of MARCEL PROUST Y LA MEMORIA INVOLUNTARIA

M.Reza Jafary, PhD TESL major How to remove Plagiarism Plagiarism as an intellectual property Plagiarism types - hanging words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
- copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not Preventing Plagiarism How to avoid Plagiarism Primary vs. Secondary Sources Using Existing Knowledge You Need To Cite When You… You Don’t Need to Cite When You… Hamlet is the source for “To be or not to be.” Shakespeare’s characters range from noble to violent and disgusting, confused to utterly certain, lewd to virginal, fanatical to aesthetic, crippled to gargantuan. Paraphrasing "People sometimes regard the written word with special reverence, even going so far as to believe that something must be true if it occurs in print. Since most people do not write books or articles that get printed, there is perhaps a natural tendency to regard printed words with wonder or admiration and to forget that they carry no guarantee of truth or quality. False or stupid things can be printed as easily as anything else, and often are." (Ronald Langacker, Language and Its Structure, 2nd ed., NY: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1973, p. 60). Example: Original "People sometimes regard the written word with special reverence, even going so far as to believe that something must be true if it occurs in print. Since most people do not write books or articles that get printed, there is perhaps a natural tendency to regard printed words with wonder or admiration and to forget that they carry no guarantee of truth or quality. False or stupid things can be printed as easily as anything else, and often are."
Note quotes and proper citation.(Ronald Langacker, Language and Its Structure, 2nd ed., NY: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1973, p. 60). Example: Original People sometimes regard the written word with special reverence, even going so far as to believe that something must be true if it occurs in print.
Ronald Langacker pointed out (1973:60) that people sometimes have faith in the written word; for this reason, they go so far as to believe that if something occurs in print, it must be true and they regard it with admiration. Sentence1 Ronald Langacker pointed out (1973:60) that people sometimes have faith in the written word; for this reason, they go so far as to believe that if something occurs in print, it must be true and they regard it with admiration. Since there are a few people who write books and articles that get printed, most people have a tendency to regard printed words with reverence and believe that they carry no guarantee of truth or quality. In fact, false or stupid things can be printed as easily as anything else, but people do not realize that. Plagiarized “Paraphrase” People sometimes regard the written word with special reverence, even going so far as to believe that something must be true if it occurs in print.
Ronald Langacker pointed out (1973:60) that people sometimes have faith in the written word; for this reason, they go so far as to believe that if something occurs in print, it must be true and they regard it with admiration. Sentence 1 People sometimes regard the written word with special reverence, even going so far as to believe that something must be true if it occurs in print.
Ronald Langacker pointed out (1973:60) that people sometimes have faith in the written word; for this reason, they go so far as to believe that if something occurs in print, it must be true and they regard it with admiration. Sentence 1 Since most people do not write books or articles that get printed, there is perhaps a natural tendency to regard printed words with wonder or admiration and to forget that they carry no guarantee of truth or quality.
Since there are a few people who write books and articles that get printed, most people have a tendency to regard printed words with reverence and believe that they carry no guarantee of truth or quality. Sentence 2 False or stupid things can be printed as easily as anything else, and often are.
In fact, false or stupid things can be printed as easily as anything else, but people do not realize that. Sentence 3 Ronald Langacker pointed out (1973:60) that people sometimes have faith in the written word; for this reason, they go so far as to believe that if something occurs in print, it must be true and they regard it with admiration. Since there are a few people who write books and articles that get printed, most people have a tendency to regard printed words with reverence and believe that they carry no guarantee of truth or quality. In fact, false or stupid things can be printed as easily as anything else, but people do not realize that. How would you paraphrase this? According to Langacker (1973:60), owing to a lack of experience in publishing, many people have such high regard for printed material that they automatically believe what they read. However, the form in which an idea is presented, whether in print or not, does not determine its validity. Langacker's remarks serve as a caution to readers who... Acceptable Paraphrase When Researching, Notetaking, and Interviewing Writing Process: When Quoting Directly Brackets - Original Quote
“More than 130 of them in dozens of countries still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain-link fence.”
- Altered Quote
According to researchers Matthew Bunn and Anthony Wier, “More than 130 [research reactors] in dozens of countries still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain-link fence.”1 Ellipses How to Cite Citing a Photo in a Presentation Complete Citation Information Examples: Book Article in a Journal Reports & Resolutions Internet Treaties Sources Contact Me In The Name of the Almighty The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions.
Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some media (such as a book or a computer file). - Turning in someone else’s work as your own
- copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit- failing to put a quotation in quotation marks- giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation Plagiarism According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means
to steal and pass off ( Ideas or words of another) as one's own to use (another's production) without crediting the source
to commit literary theft
to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.
 In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying about it afterward. Plagiarism Plagiarism types A. Consult with your instructorB. Plan your paperC. Take Effective NotesD. When in doubt, cite sourcesE. Make it clear who said whatF. Know how to ParaphraseG. Evaluate Your Sources 1. Using abbreviate
2. Alternative words as much as possible
3. Replacing the examples
4. References also can help
5. Using synonymous words
6. Adding a new example or reference Primary: .
- an original work
- poem
- short story
- art work
- video
- research paper
- journal article
- book Secondary:
- analysis of the work - review of a particular genre
- article or essay about the work
- biography of the author
- print or electronic reference sources
- textbook - Use your own words, your own voice, your own ideas
AND/OR
Paraphrase or quote, and cite
- Paraphrase: restate information, giving the meaning in another form
- Quote: to repeat wording exactly using quotes (“”)
- Cite: to give credit to original author of material; to provide full source information of original material (author, title, publisher, date, etc.) - Use or refer to someone else’s words or ideas
- Gain information through interviewing another person
- Copy the exact words or a “unique phrase”
Reprint diagrams, illustrations, charts, pictures, videos, music
- Use other people’s ideas (printed, or through conversations or email) - Write from your own experiences, observations, insights, thoughts, conclusions about a subject
- Use “common knowledge”--shared information in your field of study
- Compile generally accepted facts
- Write up your own experimental results Quote Fact/Common Knowledge Pinter, Harold. “A note on Shakespeare.” Granta 59, p. 251 Paraphrasing has to do with …

- “the sequence of ideas, the arrangement of material, the pattern of thought…”
- Use your own words when you paraphrase,
- Don’t just move things around same wording slight change of order Word substitution too close Same order of information A change from negative construction to positive construction is not enough Word substitution too close Stop to work with a partner. Citation is still required. Writing Process:
Mark everything that is someone else’s words with a big Q (for quote) or with big quotation marks
Indicate in your notes which ideas are taken from sources (S) and which are your own insights (ME)
Record all of the relevant documentation information in your notes Appearance on final product:
Proofread and check with your notes (or photocopies of sources) to make sure that anything taken from your notes is acknowledged in some combination of the ways:
In-text citation, footnotes, bibliography, quotation marks, indirect quotations Appearance on final product: Keep the person’s name near the quote in your notes, and in your paper
Select those direct quotes that make the most impact in your paper -- too many direct quotes may lessen your credibility and interfere with your style Put quotation marks around the text that you are quoting
Optional with quotes: Mention the person’s name before or after the quote
Indicate added phrases in brackets ([ ]) and omitted text with ellipses (. . .) Footnote:
1. Bunn, Matthew and Anthony Wier, “Controlling Nuclear Warheads and Materials: A Report Card and Action Plan” (Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Threat Initiative and the Project on Managing the Atom, Harvard University, March 2003) pp. 8-12. - Original Quote
“More than 130 of them in dozens of countries still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain-link fence.”
- Altered Quote
According to researchers Matthew Bunn and Anthony Wier, “More than 130 [research reactors]…still operate with HEU fuel, and many have no more security than a night watchman and a chain-link fence.”1 Footnote:
1. Bunn, Matthew and Anthony Wier, “Controlling Nuclear Warheads and Materials: A Report Card and Action Plan” (Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Threat Initiative and the Project on Managing the Atom, Harvard University, March 2003) pp. 8-12. Footnote
Use automatic footnoting in Word
Footnotes can be delegated to bottom of page or end of document
According to Langacker,1
In-Text Citation
According to Langacker (1973)
- With an indirect quote, don’t need page number
“…and often are." (Langacker, 1973, p. 60)
- With a direct quote, cite page number
1. Ronald Langacker, Language and Its Structure, 2nd ed., NY: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1973, p. 60
Atomicarchive.com Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant
Nodong Missile Spacewar.com
On last page of presentation, provide full citations according to regular citation guidelines.
Many styles, but information must include
Author
Title of work
Where it appeared (journal, newspaper, Internet)
- Name of publication
Date of work, date of publication
Page number
For book: Name of publisher, City of publication
Stephen Kotkin, Steeltown USSR (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), p. 208.
- Name of book in italics
Worldwatch Institute, State of the World 1991 (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991), Table 6-1, p. 96.
Joseph S. Nye, Jr., “Nuclear Learning and US-Soviet Security Regimes,” International Organization 41 (Summer 1987), p. 4.
- Name of journal in italics
- Title of article in quotes
Ivan T. Boskov, “Russian Foreign Policy Motivations,” MEMO, No. 4 (April 1993).
Volume number Issue number Newspaper & Magazine Articles Felicity Barringer, “Chernobyl, Five Years Later the Danger Persists,” New York Times Magazine, April 14, 1991, pp. 28, 32.
Reuters, “Iraq Asks UN to Ease Hardships, Lift Sanctions,” Lost Angeles Times, February 9, 1993, p. A9.
United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Report of the Secretary-General, UN General Assembly document A/48/344, October 11, 1993.
UN Security Council resolution 687, April 3, 1991. Web site
- “Strutktura,” SRIAR Website, <http://www.niiar.simbirsk.su/rus/rstruct.htm>.
Print publication on Web
- Astrid Forland, “Norway’s Nuclear Odyssey,” Nonproliferation Review 4 (Winter 1997), <http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/npr/forland.htm>.
Online periodical
- Svetlana Dobrynina, “Prodayetsya kvartira dlya mirnogo atoma,” Nezavisimaya gazeta online edition, July 24, 1999, <http://home.eastview.com/news/ng/>. U.S. Department of State, “Nuclear Weapons Test Ban,” August 5, 1963.
“Denmark and Italy: Convention Concerning Military Service,” July 15, 1954.
Interviews Thomas E. Gilbert, corporate secretary, James Chemical Engineering, Groton, Connecticut, telephone conversation with author, July 31, 1991.
Aleksei Yablokov, interview by author, Moscow, October 13, 1990.
Aleksei Yablokov, email correspondence with author, Moscow, October 13, 1990. Purdue University Online Writing Lab website,http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_plagiar.html
“Graduate Honor System,” Graduate Honor System website, Virginia Tech, http://ghs.grads.vt.edu/student/avoiding.html
James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, “Style Guide,” Nonproliferation Review, http://www.cns.miis.edu/pubs/npr/pdfs/guidelines.pdf
Bunn, Matthew and Anthony Wier, “Controlling Nuclear Warheads and Materials: A Report Card and Action Plan” (Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Threat Initiative and the Project on Managing the Atom, Harvard University, March 2003) pp. 8-12.
Shelly G. Roseman, Library Liaison to History, Political Science, Education, English (Stamford Campus) website, University of Connecticut, http://www.lib.uconn.edu/~sroseman/SRliaison.html
Questions about content sources, formatting, or how to contact an expert?
R_jefry@yahoo.com
Thank You
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