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Bottled Earth

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Breanna Perrone

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Bottled Earth

Bottled Bottled Water Takeover The invention of bottled water has stimulated change in society far beyond the reach of most inventions; politically, socially, culturally, economically, bottled water has left no aspect untouched over the course of its existence. Why bottle? Europe-Late 1700's What's it all about? Bottled Water:An Environmental Hazard Bathing in natural mineral springs said to work therapeutic wonders became popular for the wealthy. Boston-1767 Europeans brought their love for spas to the new world. Jackson's Spa began bottling the mineral water from their springs keep up with demand. Early Roman Empire Bottles made of clay, animal hide and natural fibers were used to transport water from the infamous Roman aqueducts. Perrier In 1898 Louis Perrier (a doctor at the time) bought Les Bouillens, a spring in the south of France. Perrier operated a commercial spa here, he also bottled and sold its waters. Sir John Harmsworth a wealthy British visitor to the spring purchased the spring from Perrier, renamed it "Source Perrier" and began bottling the water in highly distinctive green glass bottles. Perrier is widely accepted as the first to commercialize bottled water. Catching up In Cleveland July of 2006, Fiji Water a natural artesian water bottled in Fiji released a full page magazine ad with the slogan "The label says Fiji because it's not bottled in Cleveland". The city of Cleveland was so outraged they had their own testing performed pitting their city's tap water against Fiji Water. For Fiji Water, the results were less than flattering. 6.31 micrograms of arsenic per liter for Fiji Water and no measurable amounts for Cleveland tap water, Dasani or Aquafina. History of The Plastic Bottled water at its conception was bottled using glass. Today, plastic is a more popular choice due to cost. Bottles are made from a plastic called PETE or polyethylene terephthalate. Bakelite is the closest relative to PETE, and was made possible by developments made by Leo Baekeland on parkesine and celluloid. Today we use bakelite for wire insulation but without the invention of bakelite Nathanial Wyeth would not have been able to derive polyethylene terephthalate (PETE). Alexander Parkes Plastic and the Industrial Revolution Creator Parkesine-the first man-made plastic. It was used to fashion things like buttons, hairbrush handles and knife handles. Plastic and the Industrial Revolution John Wesley Hyatt Inventor of celluloid- the first industrial plastic. Celluloid could be used for things like billiard balls, piano keys and even false teeth. The finished bottles are laser coded with a specific combination of letters and numbers that includes the plant the bottles were made at and the machine number of the machine it was created on. For example, bottles created at the Tolleson plant have a T in the code. Bottles head down a conveyer belt, where a machine then places a piece of cardboard creating a palette for more bottles to be placed on top-this goes on for about four layers. Another machine saran wraps the palette and straps it. Label Decoding Artesian Water Mineral Water Purified Water Sparkling Bottled Water Spring Water groundwater tapped under pressure through an artesian well water that is naturally tapped but artificially altered with mineral salts water that has has carbon dioxide added to it groundwater-held in soil purified municipal water (equivalent of tap water that goes through a filter) Materials & Commercialization Cleveland vs. Tap "Tapped" story Controversy Files Controversy Files Standards Bottling regulations Imported Water the container water is packaged in must be sanitary as must be the facility it is packaged in must come from a protected source like a spring or artisan well Bottled water falls under the category of food, meaning the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) covers the regulation regarding the production, packaging and sale of water. However if the bottled water is produced and packaged in the same state, it does not fall under FDA jurisdiction. Adrianna Quintero Senior attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council stated "to our last account we found that one person at the FDA was responsible for overseeing all of the regulation for bottled water in the country". companies cannot flat-out lie about their source and must disclose it on their label The FDA handles imported water the same way they do imported foods. First the FDA examines whether or not there are terrorist associations or serious health risks associated with the product. Next the items go through U.S customs and Border Protection for review. If the item is "flagged" extensive testing is performed, only one shipment since 2004 has been "flagged". Nestlé Pure Life water has come out on top in multiple studies as far as purity and taste go. Nestlé Waters North America has also been commended numerous times by the Environmental Working Group for providing the public with the knowledge they deserve regarding Nestle's water. Nestlé purchased the Aberfoyle Springs brand in 2000, Aberfoyle Springs (now known as Nestlé Pure Life) began production in 1993 until the brand was purchased by Nestlé; at which point the name was changed (2002). Nestlé Pure Life is a purified (filtered) water, according the Pure Life website: “Nestlé® Pure Life® undergoes a multi-step filtration process that includes reverse osmosis and/or distillation”. The Pure Life bottle was patented by Nestlé®as The Eco-Shape bottle in 2010. The Eco-Shape bottle features up to 40% less plastic than other bottling brands, a smaller label and a flexible shape easy to crush for recycling Bottled Water Tap Water Bottled water is allowed trace amounts of contaminants such as E.coli and fecal bacteria Tap water is not allowed to contain ANY E.coli or fecal bacteria The Market for Bottled Water The regrind is then fed through dryers from on top of the machine to the injection molding machine, then through a process using high heat it then becomes hundreds of preforms. The regrind then goes through a grinder, this will take out any material that is not PET. Western Container Corporation
November 20th 2012 First, we went outside to a sort of loading dock where the plant recieves shipments of preform bins and regrind, preforms look similar to beakers and when PET manufacturers recieve them they are turned into bottles.Regrind is recycled PET shards that plants can turn into more preforms. After the preforms exit the injection molding machine they head to the extruder, where the bottle shape we recognize is finally seen. The extruder uses high heat to mold the different bottle shapes. This is also where workers pick out the bottles that are mishapen or that have fallen on the ground. I found a PET plant in Tolleson, Arizona and took a tour there with Tom Jackson, plant manager to see what type of technology is used in the production of PET bottles. I learned the steps of production for the every day Dasani bottle (as well as other Coke products). I was unable to take photos however I was allowed to take notes for the purpose of this project. The empty, unlabeled, uncapped bottle palettes are stored in a warehouse until Coca-Cola requests shipment. there is a maximum level of contaminants allowed in water (things like radon,lead,bacteria, parasites etc.) A Culture That Recycles The value of all bottled water sold in the United States during 2011 was approximately $21.7 billion. Bottled water sales in 2011 provided a remarkable boost for the drooping economy. How are Americans manipulated into consuming this much of something they can obtain in their own homes for free? Companies boast water from mountain springs and tropical places and suddenly the kitchen sink and a filter isn't looking so good. Then take into consideration a society with an insatiable desire for instant gratification, and finally you have successful market manipulation. Bottled water and The Economy This graph from Geology.com reveals Americans consumed shy of 10 billion gallons of water in 2011, a record high according to Geology.com's article "Where Does Bottled Water Come From?". Per capita consumption also increased to 29 gallons Obtained directly from the Nestle Waters website, this graph details the percentage of growth the beverage industry saw from 2010 to 2011. Bottled water saw a whopping 4.1% increase in the span of a year! Top Grossing bottled Water Company Nestle Waters is the largest bottled water company in North America. Nestle owns the following the brands: Poland Spring, Nestle Pure Life and San Pelligrino. The latest data has yet to be released but as of 2010 Nestle was making 4.2 billion dollars from water sales alone. On average, plastic bottles take close to 700 years to decompose in landfills. As of late, the United States is a country compelled to recycle, our culture does not frown upon it instead it is encouraged. However as much as it is encouraged just a few short years ago the numbers were still low. In 2008 there was 251 million tons of trash in the United States, 32.5% of which was recycled. That same year in Greece, only 10% of total trash was recycled. Recycling bins are found anywhere from movie theaters to school campuses. Their accessibility is vital to keeping cities clean and eco-friendly. Recycling properly reduces the damage done our environment by purchasing bottled water. Plastic bottles can easily be "up cycled", meaning they can be turned into something more purposeful the second time. In Boise State University's effort to "go green", recyclying bins have been added to dorms, the SUB and numerous other locations on campus Bottled water hits U.S economy, trends, politics, technology and the environment H2O No! The politics of bottled water Separating recyclables from "trash" is not just an American phenomena, all around the world people are encouraged to recycle. Romania Japan Across the nation there are campaigns to help our country "Go Green" The North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance began "RE3" in 2005 a social media campaign encouraging the youth of NC to recycle The County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works instrumented "Clean LA" in 2008 to involve the citizens of LA in their effort to recycle Romania Singapore *Advancements in technology, specifically in regards to machinery, have made it possible for factories to be more efficient. For example, when it comes time for preforms to travel to the injection molding machine, automated robot-like carts transport preforms from the grinder to the injection molding machine. All the workers in the factory have to do is move out of the way when the carts come near. Bibliography Websites Film Books The laws regarding groundwater in the early 2000's were left in the hands of state governments. At this time, technically, companies could enter any given city with groundwater resources and pump water from said resources in order to bottle and sell the water. In the early 2000's Nestle decided they would obtain their water for brand Poland Spring from springs in Fryeburg, Maine. To pump the water Nestle did not have to release any information or provide the public with any notice whatsoever. They were able to come into the town of Fryeburg and start pumping from the local springs. These springs happen to be where Fryeburg had obtained water for their city for over 100 years. Nestle came in and transferred the town's water to a deeper well so they would be able pump water from the springs. In February of 2004, the people of Fryeburg were without water for a day and a half. It is not known why the town's well went dry however during this day and a half Nestle continued to pump water from the springs with no regard to the citizens crisis. The people of Fryeburg were enraged and fought their city council for ownership of the town's groundwater. Absolute Dominion: A law developed in the early 1800's stating that whomever has the biggest pump is allowed to obtain the water from local springs, wells, etc. PET is made from peraxyline, a a liquid derived from refined crude oil. Oil companies like Exxon, BP and Chevron produce peraxyline. It takes 714 million gallons of oil every year to manufacture the amount of bottles the U.S manufactures, this is enough to fuel 100,000 cars. Petrochemical plants that produce oil and peraxyline have their plants in populated, urban areas. Leaks are common in plants such as these and contaminate local groundwater frequently. One of the largest oil refineries in the U.S is in Corpus Christi, Texas. The city of Corpus Christi's rate of disease, illness and birth defects is 84% higher than the state average. These plants are not safe for the health of citizens and are not safe for our enviroment. Companies are required to run testing on their water but are not required to submit is to the FDA or make it public knowledge municipal water is tested anywhere from 300-400 times a month depending on the city's population, providers are also required to share knowledge with the state as water quality reports are posted on state websites multiple times a month. High temperatures leach chemicals into the water in plastic water bottles, this can be leaving a bottle in a car if it is 90+ degrees outiside. Pipes protect any sort of chemical leach into tap water In 2008, a Senate Subcommittee met to discuss the topic of bottled water. Their goal was to transfer it from the FDA's jurisdiction to the Enviropmental Protection Agency's jurisdiction (group that regulates tap water). The Bottle Bill came to be in the 1970's, thus far it has passed in 11 states. In these 11 states, consumers pay an extra five to ten cents on top of the price of their bottled water in order to fund the state's recycling of plastic bottles. Many recycling activists are trying to get more states to pass this law because the government is currently in charge of paying for recycling programs throughout the country. Depending on the states size and consumption of plastic, recycling programs can get costly, essentially bleeding the government dry to protect the environment. This home is made from Thermo Poly Rock, or, recycled plastic! Affersol, a housing developer based in Wales built this home from 18 tons of plastic. It is fire retardant, well insulated and water-proof. "Bottled water." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottled_water (accessed November 14, 2012).
Basics on bottled water, includes a lot of information on bottled water vs. tap water. Bellis, Mary. "The History of Plastic." Inventors. http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/plastics.htm (accessed November 5, 2012).
This website included information about Bakelite, Parkesine and Celluloid and each of the plastics inventors. EWG. "Bottled Water Quality Investigation: 10 Major Brands, 38 Pollutants | Environmental Working Group." Environmental Working Group- The Power Of Information. http://www.ewg.org/reports/BottledWater/Bottled-Water-Quality-Investigation (accessed November 19, 2012). EWG’s standards on tap water. "Drinking Water: Research and Safety - Press Room/Media Center - Congressional Bottled Water Legislation." Facts About Water . http://www.thefactsaboutwater.org/congressional-bottled-water-legislation/ (accessed December 13, 2012).
Bottled water legislation that may be to come. Majeski Jemmott, Janet . "Rethink What You Drink ." Health Tips, Food and Recipes, Funny Jokes and Cartoons, and Sweepstakes | Reader’s Digest. http://www.rd.com/health/rethink-what-you-drink/ (accessed December 13, 2012).What is in bottled water and how is it so bad for the environment, quality information. Royte, Elizabeth. Bottlemania: how water went on sale and why we bought it. New York: Bloomsbury, 2008Royte’s novel details the market for water and the sale of bottled waters’ effect on the economy. Tapped. DVD. Directed by Stephanie Soechtig. New York: Disinformation Co., 2010.The health concern of bottle production factories, the energy required to run said factories as well as the energy to transport and manufacture bottles. Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. "Thermodynamics - Overview of Thermodynamics." Physics. http://physics.about.com/od/thermodynamics/p/thermodynamics.htm (accessed November 13, 2012).
Physics of manufacturing plastic water bottles. Nestlé Waters North America. "Industry Overview." Nestlé Waters North America. http://www.nestle-watersna.com/en/about-us/industry-overview/Pages/industry-overview.aspx (accessed December 6, 2012).
Graphs, as well as industry facts/statistics.
Stephenson, John. "Bottled Water FDA Safety and Consumer Protections Are Often Less Stringent Than Comparable EPA Protections for Tap Water." United States Government Accountability Office (2009). http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09861t.pdf (accessed November 16, 2012).FDA standards on bottling plants, as well as standards on imported water. The Daily Mail. "New homes to be built from 18 tonnes of recycled plastic | Mail Online." Daily Mail Online. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1253514/New-homes-built-18-tonnes-recycled-plastic.html (accessed November 5, 2012).Home made from 18 tons of recycled plastic, about its creator and company Wikipedia. "Perrier." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perrier (accessed December 10, 2012).The history of Perrier Waters Personal Interview Jackson, Tom. Interview by author. Personal interview. Western Container Corporation, November 26, 2012.Tour of Western Container Corp.- manufacturer for Coca-Cola. 1 1 1 1 "Bottled water." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottled_water (accessed November 14, 2012).Basics on bottled water, includes a lot of information on bottled water vs. tap water. 2 Bellis, Mary. "The History of Plastic." Inventors. http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/plastics.htm (accessed November 5, 2012).This website included information about Bakelite, Parkesine and Celluloid and each of the plastics inventors. Wikipedia. "Perrier." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perrier (accessed December 10, 2012).
History of Perrier Waters 1 3 Google Images 3 2 2 2 Google Images 2 Google Images Stephenson, John. "Bottled Water FDA Safety and 4 Consumer Protections Are Often Less Stringent Than Comparable EPA Protections for Tap Water." United States Government Accountability Office (2009). http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09861t.pdf (accessed November 16, 2012).FDA standards on bottling plants, as well as standards on imported water. 4 4 4 4 4 Tapped. DVD. Directed by Stephanie Soechtig. New York: Disinformation Co., 2010.The health concern of bottle production factories, the energy required to run said factories as well as the energy to transport and manufacture bottles. 5 5 4 4 Nestlé Waters North America. "Industry Overview." Nestlé Waters North America. http://www.nestle-watersna.com/en/about-us/industry-overview/Pages/industry-overview.aspx (accessed December 6, 2012). 6 6 6 Google Patents 5 5 5 EWG. "Bottled Water Quality Investigation: 10 Major Brands, 38 Pollutants | Environmental Working Group." Environmental Working Group- The Power Of Information. http://www.ewg.org/reports/BottledWater/Bottled-Water-Quality-Investigation (accessed November 19, 2012).
EWG’s standards on tap water as well as brands sales revenue 7 7 7 5 5 8 8 "Drinking Water: Research and Safety - Press Room/Media Center - Congressional Bottled Water Legislation." Facts About Water . http://www.thefactsaboutwater.org/congressional-bottled-water-legislation/ (accessed December 13, 2012). 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 Over the past 10 years, bottled water has done more harm than good. This is an invention that has literally impacted every aspect of our lives, if we do not put a stop to it now it will take a serious toll on not only our environment, but the environment of future generations.
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