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Factors That Affect Rate of Dissolving and Solubility

A presentation by: Usman, Jillian, Nadine, and Ashlee

Ashlee Zommers

on 1 November 2012

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Transcript of Factors That Affect Rate of Dissolving and Solubility

SCH 3U1 Solutions and Solubility By: Usman, Jillian, Nadine and Ashlee. Solubility of A Solute Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving & Solubility The amount of a solute that dissolves in a given volume of solvent at a certain temperature. Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving 1. For most solid solutes, the rate of dissolving is greater at a higher temperature.
- At high temperatures, the solvent molecules have greater kinetic energy, thus collide more frequently.

2. By shaking or stirring the solvent, the rate of dissolving increases.
-Brings a fresh solvent into contact with an undissolved solid.
This is also known as agitation!

3. Decreasing the size of the solutes particles also increases the rate of dissolving.
-Increase surface area that is in contact with the solvent. Solubility & Particle Attraction What are the reasons as to why a solute may or may not dissolve in a solvent?

It is simply because of the forces of attraction between the solute and solvent particles.

When the forces of attraction between two "different" particles are stronger than the forces of attraction between "like" particles in the mixture, a solution forms.
We can also describe these relationships as polar and non-polar bonds. Polar and Non-Polar Substances Polar: A molecule that has an uneven distribution of charge.
Non-Polar: A molecule that does not posess a dipole because of the arrangement of molecules.

This affects the rate of dissolving and solubility because of the intermolecular forces of particles.

Polar compounds dissolve in Polar solvents, Non-Polar compounds dissolve in Non- Polar solvents. Ion Dipole Attractions - The intermolecular forces between ions and polar molecules.

For example:

In a solid, the negative end of a dipole of water molecule attracts the cations on the surface of the ionic crystal. At the same time, the positive end of the water dipole attracts the anions.

In a liquid, each ion is hydrated, thus surrounded by water molecules. The ions are able to conduct electricity and are also known as electrolytes. Solute: The substance being dissolved
Solvent: The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.

When a solute is dissolved into a solvent, the reactants create a solution. Rate of Dissolving Here are some factors that affect rates of dissolving... Here are some examples of common solutions: To begin, we must look at what certain factors are available to aid in dissolving a solute within a solvent.
There are several speeds at which a solute is dissolved in a solvent. Solubility and Intermolecular Forces Dipole: Molecule that consists of two opposite charges that are separated by a short distance. Dipole-Dipole Atrractions: The attraction between the opposite charges on two different polar molecules. These attractions are intermolecular. But what is happening within the molecules in a chemical reaction that produces a solution? The following are ideas upon dissolving and solubility. Carbon Oxygen Oxygen Voila! We're done :) An Exception: Although many ionic compounds dissolve in a solvent, such as water, many compounds do not.

The attractive forces between the ionic molecules are much stronger, and are much harder to break apart to create a chemical reaction. As a result, compounds with strong ionic bonds tend to be less soluble in water than compounds with weaker ionic bonds To wrap up:
-Temperature, agitation, and size of the particles affect the rates of dissolving.
-Polar and non-polar substance attraction.
-The intermolecular forces that are present in a chemical reaction. Now you know more about dissolving and solubility!
Thank-you! eg. Silver chloride < soluble than Sodium chloride
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