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The Evolution of the Bicycle

The history behind the invention of the modern day bicycle.

Verenitze Beltran

on 14 December 2012

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Transcript of The Evolution of the Bicycle

The Evolution
of the
Bicycle By: Verenitze Beltran Scotland After overcoming many centuries of alterations and modifications, the bicycle has evolved from being a form a transportation standard to also becoming a leisure activity. This has resulted from the advancement of technology in which modifications have been made to the bicycle since the late 18th century. Pierre and the Crank Patents Industrial Revolution Important Cyclists Cycling Competitions Standards Architecture Politics Economy Summary: Draisienne/ Laufmaschine Mannheim, Germany The first human means of transport was the dandy horse bicycle, also called the Draisienne or laufmaschine. This bike was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais and was introduced to the public in Mannheim the summer of 1817. MacMillan Velocipede The first "modern day" bicycle was invented in Dumfries, Scotland by Kirkpatrick Macmillan. This was the first bicycle to have pedals. This bike also had a back wheel larger than the front wheel. The first recorded bicycle accident: Kirkpatrick not only invented the first "modern day" bicycle, but he is also associated with the first recorded bicycle accident. According to a Glasgow newspaper in 1842, "a gentle man from Dumfries" knocked over a little girl in Glasgow and was fined five shillings. In the early 1860s the mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel were added to the bicycle by two Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement. Several years earlier Douglas Grasso, another french inventor, had failed a prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle. Crank failure The world's first bicycle patent was Pierre Lallement's patent which was patent number 59,915. This patent was shared with his partner James Carroll.

The patent photo shows the number 7,972, which was the number that was reissued by the patent office in 1877 Materials and how the bike works The Wheel The wheel allows for the rider to roll over the ground with great speed and efficiency. It is the most crucial element of the bicycle.

It is believed that the wheel originated in Mesopotamia sometime around 3,500 BC. Although the bike had not been invented at that time, the wheel was crucial for transporting good and people with chariots and carts.

It was because of advances in materials and engineering during the industrial revolution that made it possible to use the wheel effectively in bicycles. Spokes:

The earliest bikes have all used spokes. Even in ancient times many chariots and animal drawn carts have used spokes

Although early spoked wheels were mostly made out of wood, the spokes of today's bicycles are made out of steel, aluminum, or other materials such as carbon composite or ceramics.

There are different ways to spoke a bike wheel. Many bikes have tangential spokes, which means that they do not connect from the but to the rim in a strait line, but at an angle.

Tangential spoking helps transmit the torque from the hub to the tires. It helps so that the bike can not only support the weight of the rider but also all other kinds of forces like pedaling, breaking, and the effects of the road surface.
Having radially spoked wheels would be less efficient and also make the wheel weaker. Frames and Materials Aerodynamics Today frames are made out of materials such as titanium, aluminum, and carbon fiber. Compared to the cast iron and wood frames from the 1800's bicycle frames have become lighter and stronger than ever before.

Steel frames are used today, with thin walls and weigh considerably less than those of the late 1800s. Modern frame makers such as Paolo Salvagione uses a variety of materials such as steel, aluminum, titanium, and carbon-fiber. When choosing the material to make a bike frame, one usually considers, elasticity, yield strength, and ultimate strength. Wind resistance is something every bicyclist has to overcome. The bicycle in which the rider sits up straight has very poor aerodynamics.

Bicycles are now being designed with aerodynamics in mind, although the human body is simply not well designed to slice through the air. A good way to reduce wind resistance is for the cyclist to lean forward, this helps them slice through the air. A cyclist's velocity, weight, grade, and wind velocity all play an important role in the aerodynamic drag of biking Evolution of the Bicycle has taken place over 500 years. Just like many other machines, the modern day Bicycle was heavily influenced by the industrial revolution occurring in Europe. Before the Industrial Revolution Before the industrial revolution bicycles like the Draisines were composed of a wooden frame and handles. During the Industrial Revolution During the time of the industrial age in England more jobs were being found in the city. This ment that farmers needed to find a form of transportation to and from their jobs in the city. The Velocipede was the answer to this problem.

In the early 1860's the crank driven bicycle was one of the main forms of transportation to and from jobs. After the Industrial Revolution After the Industrial Revolution the "safety bicycle" was invented. This bicycle had a smaller wheel diameter and had a rear chain drive which transferred power to the rear wheel rather than the front making steering easier. "Bicycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle (accessed December 14, 2012).

"Bicycle Rolling Stop Animation – Idaho Stop Law « Urban Velo." Urban Velo. http://urbanvelo.org/bicycle-rolling-stop-animation-idaho-stop-law/ (accessed December 14, 2012).

"Biography | Kristin Armstrong." Kristin Armstrong | Cyclist, 2012 Olympic Gold Medal Winner. http://www.kristinarmstrongusa.com/biography.html (accessed December 14, 2012).

Epperson, Bruce D. 2010. Peddling bicycles to America the rise of an industry. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10399473.

Fiedler, David. "Early Bike Racing - History of Bicycle Racing." Bicycling - About.com . http://bicycling.about.com/od/thebikelife/ss/History_6.htm (accessed December 14, 2012).

"Science of Cycling: History of Drives & Gears | Exploratorium." Exploratorium: the museum of science, art and human perception. http://www.exploratorium.edu/cycling/gears1.html (accessed December 14, 2012).

Steele, Spencer. "TechPost #2 : The Bicycle in Context to the Industrial Revolution « Spencer Steele's Blog." Spencer Steele's Blog. http://spencersteele.wordpress.com/2010/03/24/techpost-2-the-bicycle-in-context-to-the-industrial-revolution/ (accessed December 14, 2012).

"What Is The Standard Size Bike Wheel? | LIVESTRONG.COM." LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, Nutrition & Fitness Tools | LIVESTRONG.COM. http://www.livestrong.com/article/445919-what-is-the-standard-size-bike-wheel/ (accessed December 14, 2012).
Kristin Armstrong When Kristin was diagnosed with osteoarthritis she considered cycling as a therapy. Since then she has two Olympic Gold Medals, three World Titles, five National Championships and countless other victories. She is considered to be the most decorated female cyclist in US history. Alexander Vinokourov Alexander is a Kazakh professional road bicycle racer who currently competes with the UCI ProTeam Astana. He has two bronze medals at the World Championships, four stage wins in the Tour de France, four in the Vuelta a Espana and the overall title in 2006, and the overall gold medal at the 2012 London Olympics Men's Road Race. Olympic Cycling
USA Cycling
Idaho Bike Racing
CYCLE Kids Fundraiser
JDRF Ride to Cure Diabetes
3 Rivers Race Cycling has become an important form of exercise as well as a leisure activity. Because of this Cycling Races have been created, whether its to determine who can ride the fastest or to help a cause. Cycling Races have become an common activity in our society. A few Cycling Races are: The first bike race took place in 1868 in Park de Saint-Cloud, Paris. It was a 1.2 Km race that was won by the Englishman James More on a wooden bike with iron tires. Wheel Sizes The average Bicycle wheel sizes are as follow, yet this is not mandatory, as the wheel sizes may vary according to height, weight, and experience of the biker. Mountain Bike: 26''
BMX: 20''
Road Bike: 20''
Kid's Bikes: 16'' Bicycles have become more affordable to the different kinds of social classes, which is one of the reasons we see more and more of them. Whether its ridden for fun or as an essential form of transportation bicycles are now more and more common on the streets, which is why biking laws and regulations have been put in place.

The Idaho Stop Law is a traffic provision that allows bicycles to proceed at a slow speed through stop signs if the coast is clear.

Below is a Bicycle-related Idaho Code, which shows more details on bicycle regulations. Frame Sizes The frame size varies according to height and weight of the rider. As well as the experience of the biker. The architecture of cities, towns, and buildings have all been affected by the gradual increase of bicycle use.

Many cities and towns have now added a bicycle lane or greenbelt to better accommodate bikers and help prevent traffic accidents.

Bicycle racks have been designed and added to many public buildings to accommodate the bikes of the public and to help improve the image of the building by reducing scattered bicycles here and there. Riding your bike to get to places helps you save money. Money is saved because you don't have to worry about gas, oil, or any electric issues. This affects our economy in both a good and a bad way.

The good way is that if more people use bikes instead of cars then the demand for gas is less therefore lowering gas prices for others.

The down side is that if everyone saves money by using bicycles then there will be less car sales and less work for car mechanics. How biking affects our economy How our economy affects biking Due to high gas prices many people have reduced their car use and increased their use for bicycles, this is a positive way in which the economy has affected the use of bicycles, but the economy may have also impacted bike riders negatively.

Because of the bad economy and the need for jobs many people have lost their jobs to which they would ride their bikes to and have found jobs that are much further out forcing them to drive their vehicles. To conclude, the bicycle has gradually become a part of our daily lives. Whether it's directly or indirectly, we are all affected by the traffic laws, the architecture, and the impact bikes have on the economy.

The bike has been around for many years and as we can see it has had many changes which have helped improve its performance and lower its cost. Making it more affordable than a car.

Bikes have evolved to being a leisure activity as well as a form of transportation, by having bike races many cyclist have been able to put their skills to the test.

Overall, the bicycle has been a wonderful contribution to our society. Bibliography:
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