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Transcript of Aboriginal Peoples
Interior & coastal / Salish
The Salish have just recently won a major land claim issue on South Pender Island. Explain the facts and how this is important to other aboriginal groups.(remember to look at the section on Indian land and their rights)
Plains/Blackfoot & Cree
The Blackfoot Confederacy contains the Piegan people (Pikuni), the Blood people (Kainai), the Blackfoot People (Siksika), and the Tsuu T’ina (Sarcee) People.
Mathematics & Aboriginal Culture
What do you think the aboriginal people might have learned from this game?
How could they have used these sticks when trading with other tribes?
West Coast / Haida
The Haida lived in balance with nature and the spirit world until when?
East Coast/ Mi'kmaq
Blood people (Kainai)
The Blood Tribe has contains over ten-thousand occupying people and around 549.7 square miles with a Timber Limit in the Rocky Mountains of approximately 7.5 square miles. It contains three rivers:the Old Man, St. Mary and Belly.
Blackfoot People (Siksika)
Siksika has approximately 6000 members in it's group. The Siksika Nation is governed by a chief and twelve councillors. All of these people are elected by members for three-year terms. Right now, the chief of the Siksika Nation is Fred Rabbit Carrier.
Tsuu T’ina (Sarcee) People.
People think that the name "Sarcee" came from a Blackfoot word meaning boldness and hardiness. The Sarcee people call themselves Tsuu T'ina (also Tsúùt'ínà), which means "many people" or "every one (in the Nation)."
Pikuni is the largest of the three Nations of the Blackfoot Nation. Their name is from the word apiku'ni, meaning "badly tanned robe." The fur traders referred then to the Muddy River Indians.
How the Aboriginals Used Every Part of the Buffalo
The Role of the Buffalo
Buffalo was definitively the main source of food for these Aboriginals that lived on the Plains. The pouch that they put the pemmican in was made of bison stomach or intestine and sealed with hot grease that would last for years.Theywould use the hide for tepee coverings, bedding, clothes, moccasins, and robes. The hair of the buffalo was used for ropes and halters. The hoofs were used for rattles. Horns were used to make dishes and spoons and ladles.
Buffalo meat was cut into strips before dried/cooked the meat, then made soups and Pemmican.
The meat is then pounded with a stone into shreds, mixed with hot buffalo fat and berries. After the meat has been turned into shreds, the Aboriginals would pour it into a bag which is where the meat would be left to cool and harden. This meat can be preserved for many years.
Tribes would sent a limited amount of people to destroy a village and the rest would protect their own village. After the enemies ruined their village, they would have a ceremony right after assuming they would not return. The Plains people had lots of experience in making alliances, pacts, and treaties to other tribes. A medicine bundle was carried by the warrior during the war to provide them extra strength and protection. Many young men found it very fun to sneak into it's enemies camp and steal their horses. Without their horses, the only way of travel was by foot.
War and Tribal Relationships
All of the Blackfoot tribes maintained kinship by intermarrying within the other’s tribe.
The Assiniboine and the Cree tribe were allied together to help each other fight tribes from the Blackfoot Confederacy.
There were no boundaries to show which land was whose but the tribes had specific traditional hunting areas that each tribe knew.
Some of the tribes were allies but some were enemies,
The Blackfoot Confederacy tribes were known as allies and fought other tribes like the Assiniboine, the Cree, the Sioux, the Crow, the Shoshoni and the Kootenay tribes to the North.
Sioux Raid Party
I conclude from looking at these pictures that the Cree and the Canadian Plains are similar to one another. The Cree and the Canadian Plains both lived in tepees. They also both used horses during war and when hunting for buffalo. Both tribes lived right beside each other in the same area. The only difference is that the men in the Cree would were lots of feathers around his head.
What is throat singing?
Throat singing is one of the worlds oldest form of music. Surprisingly,a throat singer can produce 2 or more notes at a time. This can happen when using the
movements of lips, tongue, jaw, velum and larynx.
Inuit throat singing is a bit different from throat
singing because it is a different version of it. In the Inuit, throat singing is more common to women instead of men. This technique relies more on short, sharp, rhythmic inhalations and exhalations of breath. It was normally used to sing babies to sleep or when the men are away hunting on long winter nights.
Why is he glad that the winter is coming? How is he different from other Inuit?
What is their relationship with the bear?
Why is the changing environment an issue for the Inuit?
The most well known form of celebration among the Ojibwa is the Pow Wow. It plays a big role in Native American culture and has religious significance. The Pow Pow is a time to get together and participate in singing, dancing, feasting, praying, visiting and storytelling. It's also when everyone gets together to celebrate the history of people and to use many different types of art for recreational and competitive purposes. It can last from 5-6 hours to three days. The dance is the main part of this celebration.
Describe three of the more traditional dances.
What role do the song and drum play in Ojibwa traditions?
1) Grass Dance
-Dancing style and costume is what stands out in grass dancing.
-The costumes in the video were made out of animal skins such as buffalo hide.
-Made with lots of bead work or ribbon work.
-Imitates grass swaying in the wind.
- Comes from the tying braids of sweet grass to the dancer's belts which producing a swaying effect.
-The headdress is a porcupine's hair roach which is attached to a head harness made out of b
-Many different objects such as: small hawk bells, shells, and sewing thimbles are used to make the jingles.
-The Jingle dress is also called a Prayer dress.
-The dress decorated with rolled up snuff with lids that are hung with ribbon. The ribbon is then sewed to the dress,
-The jingles are placed really close to each other so they can hit each other, causing a beautiful sound.
-The jingles sound like rain if your really close.
-The regalia or the costume is often used to represent the animals that the Creator put on the earth.
-In the Men's Traditional Dance, the steps of the Traditional Dance shows warrior actions-hunting, stalking the game and battling an enemy.
-Normally, a traditional dancer wore a single bustle of eagle feathers, which is considered to be sacred.
-In the Women's Traditional Dance, it required lots of energy, concentration, focusing and graceful movement.
-Women have to move their feet close to the ground with the drum beat.
-Their would wear a fringed shawl held gracefully folded over one arm, an awl and knife case on the belt and a feather (often eagle ) fan.
The songs had a great significance in the Pow Wows
because most of them came to people from dreams or visions. Many songs have been passed down through generations but many songs have been lost as well. A common belief is that every time a song is sung or performed, the song gets richer. The Aboriginals thought that the song is the Creator's breath of life.
The drum or the Tewikan is the focus of the Pow Wow. The shape of the drum is round because that symbolizes the cycle of life. The wood and hide represents honesty and sharing with the natural world. When the drum is played during the Pow Wow, it is surrounded by four or more singers, Together, the drumbeat represents a unified heartbeat. The significance of the drum comes in through the symbolism of interdependence. The materials used to make the drum came from animals and trees which are both living things. The Aboriginals are reminded that the tree grew depending on the soil, water, and pointed into the air to the Creator. The drum reminds the people of their need of their Creator, which controls earth. The drum is a very sacred object and is not allowed to be used as a toy. Out of respect, nothing can ever be placed on top or across the drum.
Woodlands/Wendat, Iroquois, Huron,Algonquin
How did the Wendat people govern themselves?
The Wendat governed themselves and made their decisions well. Problems would be taken to court. There were two different types of captains, one is the war captain and the other is the peace captain.The Wendat would split the tribe into 5 different groups/clans: bear clan, cord clan, deer clan, rock clan and house clan. Those 5 groups would make up the tribe. Each group had one head chief that went through the family. The chief would make all the important decisions. Once every year, the 5 chief's, each from different clans, would meet each other for a meeting. They would talk about defensive attacks plans.
Discuss the role of spirits in their daily lives and how their feast become integrated into one we celebrate today in Canada.
The role of spirits in their daily lives was normally during feasts. The Singing Feast was the largest and most popular. A man would hold a Singing Feast if he wished to gain status. To celebrate good fortune, the Wendats would have a Thanksgiving Feast. Now-a-days, we celebrate Thanksgiving to be grateful of what we have which is similar to why the Wendats would have a Thanksgiving Feast. Societies who dealt with both physical and mental disorders carried out curing feasts. Someone dying gave farewell feasts when death was imminent. Feasts were announced by the crier, and the older the elderly is, the crier the more important the event. Dances, games and special rites accompanied all feasts.
Who made up the Iroquois Confederacy?
Explain the role the peacemaker plays in Iroquois life.
The 5 different nations:Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida and the Mohawk.made up The Iroquois Confederacy. Each nation kept its own territory, language and culture. Before they founded the Confederacy, the nations had war against each other. One day, a leader, the Peacemaker, came to give a message to the nations about peace and unity. The Mohawks first believed the Peacemaker and helped bring the message across to the other nations. accept the Great Law of Peace. The Great Law of Peace established a government which is The Iroquois Confederacy-allowed nations to work together and respect each other. The Peacemaker had made a big impact in the life of the Iroquoians. That is why there are no more wars between the nations.
Explain why you think this song is sung in Huron, French, and English.
I think this song is sung in Huron, French and English. The language Huron is probably their Native language that was passed down from generations to generations. The elderly might have heard bits of English from their trades with different tribes. When the Europeans came, they probably taught the Aboriginals the language French to communicate with the Aboriginals. After many years, these languages were still kept. Those three languages are probably well-known to the Huron. That's why when the Natives normally talk to each other or sing, they probably use the three languages Huron, French and English.
Use a chart to show the foods of the Eastern Woodland tribes.
The Oral Tradition of the Iroquois
"The Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca Nations were at war with one another. It was a terrible time of cruelty, bloodshed and mourning. But then a Huron man, referred to as the Peacemaker, canoed from the western shore of Lake Ontario. He brought with him a message of peace and unity.The first nation to accept the Peacemaker’s message was the Kanienkehaka or the Mohawk Nation. The Peacemaker traveled east and camped near Cohoes Falls. He made a campfire so that the Mohawks in the nearby village would see the smoke and know that he was there and that he wished to confer with them. Mohawk runners came to his campsite to ask who he was and to find out what he wanted. The Peacemaker said that he was the one they were waiting for. He was the one who was carrying a message of Peace. The Mohawks were uncertain as to whether they should trust this stranger or not and so they said that he would have to pass a test to prove that he had the power to carry such an important message. They said that he would have to climb a tree that was growing next to Cohoes Falls. The Mohawks would then cut the tree down and if he survived the fall, they would know that he had great power and they would listen to his words. The Peacemaker agreed to the test. He climbed the tree. The tree was cut down. The Peacemaker fell into the water and disappeared over the falls. The Mohawks waited and waited, but there was no sign of the visitor emerging from the water. The Mohawks were disappointed and went back to their village. The next morning, a thin wisp of white smoke was seen in the distance. Upon investigation, it was discovered that the Peacemaker had made this campfire and that he was alive and well. He was waiting to be invited to enter the village. It was in that village that he met Ayonwatha, the one who would travel with him to convince the five nations to stop fighting and to unify. It took many years, but eventually, the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca Nations unified and formed a peace league. The English referred to it as “The Five Nations”. Later, they called it “The Six Nations” because the Tuscarora people came north from the Carolina’s in the early 1700’s to join. The French called the league “The Iroquois Confederacy”. The real name is the “Haudenosaunee” meaning “The People of the Longhouse” which refers to the traditional long, bark-covered houses in which the Haudenosaunee lived. Longhouse is also a metaphor for the social, political and spiritual structure that was put into place by the Peacemaker. “Five Nations”, “Six Nations”, “Iroquois Confederacy,” and “Haudenosaunee” are all different names for the same thing. The Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora Nations are distinct and separate nations that belong to a United Nations called the Haudenosaunee.The first individual to accept his message of peace was a Seneca woman named Jigonsaseh. Because it was a woman who was the first individual to accept his message of peace, the Peacemaker gave women an important role in the new confederacy that was to be formed. Jigonsaseh became known as “The Mother of Nations.”It took many years, but eventually, the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca Nations unified and formed a peace league. The English referred to it as “The Five Nations”. Later, they called it “The Six Nations” because the Tuscarora people came north from the Carolina’s in the early 1700’s to join. The French called the league “The Iroquois Confederacy”. The real name is the “Haudenosaunee” meaning “The People of the Longhouse” which refers to the traditional long, bark-covered houses in which the Haudenosaunee lived. Longhouse is also a metaphor for the social, political and spiritual structure that was put into place by the Peacemaker. "
Describe what Haida villages were like.
What was the role of masks in Haida culture?
The role of the masks in Haida culture is very important because they are commonly worn. The masks were mostly worn by the members of the secret society and they would usually dance with them to show the wild spirits of the woods which the Haida called gaglid. They also performed dances to illustrate the spirit beings learned from their ancestors. This is because some of the animals represented their gods. To this day, some of the Haida villages still do these traditions with their family. The Haida word for mask is niijangu which means "to imitate". When three people are dancing while wearing the mask, it is considered to be
true magic. The dancer makes the
mask real. The song connects the
Haida with spirit. These traditions have been passed
down from generations to
The Haida villages consists of 1 or more rows of houses along the beach. In the middle of the sizable town, was the town chief's house. Double-row houses were very common .The house was bigger than any of the other houses. Each house wasn't very tall but was very wide with a totem pole right in front of the house. All of the houses were very well constructed and surrounded by water. Every house had a circular doorway. Although these villages lived close to the Pacific Ocean, these settlements were far enough that the winter storms wouldn't hit them. Each house was made of western red cedar and framework of stout corner posts that supported massive beams. Small houses were 6m by 9m which contained thirty to forty related family members, while large houses were up to 15 by 18 m with twice as many residents:family members and slaves.
The Haida lived in balance with nature and the spirit until the Europeans came and ruined their culture. They called the Haida barbarians because they ate with their hands. The Europeans wanted to learn their way of culture so during that period of time, many of their culture and spiritual beliefs were lost.
The Aboriginal people would've learned many different skills from these games. One thing that they might have learned is to use every part of an animal to respect the spirits.
They could've used the different parts of the animals to trade to tribes that don't have these animals around them. Since they decorated their sticks/bones, they could also trade them for other materials that they would need. These "sticks" could be an craft that tribes might need for their ceremonies. Many groups would probably want their children to learn in such a way that is fun and easy.
This is important to the other Aboriginal Groups because then won't be happy about it. Many Aboriginal Tribes may also want more land for their nation and this time the Salish won the land. War might happen and many tribes may not like the Salish anymore. Canada's so called "Indian Problem" is caused by the illegal occupation of First Nations land by settlers. These horrible results from the colonial state's failure to resolve the issue of the Aboriginals' right to own and use their lands and resources. The Aboriginal Title was confirmed in 1997 by the Supreme Court of Canada decision: Only a small part of the land is under treaty, land rights are most contentious. The Aboriginals want land because their population keeps on growing. At first, Canada didn't want the Aboriginals to take over their land but then the Salish held a National Day of Action on 29 June 2007 to demonstrate for their rights across Canada. They wanted more land so they held something a bit like a strike. The Indian Reserve in Saskatchewan said,"In our culture, you'll find a belief in the sanctity of the natural environment. This belief can inform and inspire all Canadians as we struggle to formulate a sustainable economy in the face of global warming. Unfortunately, these beliefs are being compromised by aboriginal leadership, which has been co - opted into the narrow minded economic system of mainstream Canada. On the local and national level, our leadership is strangely silent on environmental issues. Money and political power seem to be their masters - no different from the colonial oppressors our people have lived with for the past century. This is just as tragic as the poverty and dysfunction that permeates First Nations communities, as tragic as the racism that exists at all levels of Canadian society". That was when Canada decided to give the First Nations a chance.
Explain what oral tradition or oral history means to Native peoples
Have a look at the 21 rules of protocol the Mi'kmaq follow and then compare then to rules in your own life now.
21 Rules of Protocols
1. The Mi’kmaq philosophy of non-interference implies respect and acceptance of the beliefs of others. An individual should never impose his/her beliefs on another. This philosophy is reflected in the interaction of Mi’kmaq people with their children, who are taught from an early age to makedecisions that affect their lives.
2. Respect is given to all creation, to life in all its forms. The Mi’kmaq respect for animals includes taking responsibility for their continuation as a species. Respect is given to all ages equally, including children and the elderly. Respect is taken away only when an individual has acted in away that offends another.
3. The Mi’kmaq believe in the natural course of justice. Although laws do not always result in justice being done, Mi’kmaq people have faith that a higher power will prevail.
4. Mi’kmaq people live by a belief in divine providence. They believe that everything in life happens for a reason. They do not question or challenge the ways of the creator.
5. The issue of death is dealt with at all levels in the Mi’kmaq community. Children are encouraged to ask questions about death. They are also encouraged to attend wakes and to offer prayers for the deceased person and for the family. Life and death are two events that go hand-in-hand in the native community.
6. When a person dies, signs of affection and respect are showered on the individual’s memory. Such praise is seldom given to a Mi’kmaq person in life. This expression of love and respect is not limited to the immediate family. Mi’kmaq people will travel hundreds of miles to attend the funeral of a friend or relative. One way to show this affection is by bidding for items at the auction or salite after someone’s death. The auction is held to give financial and emotional support to the family of the deceased member. It is quite common for Mi’kmaq people to bid for items at an auction even if it results in not having the money to pay for a ticket to return home.
7. Each person has a purpose for being on earth, and a responsibility to discover that purpose. Each person’s special talents, gifts, and wisdom gained through time should be shared with the community without that individual expecting any return.
8. If possible, Mi’kmaq people keep their disappointment in others to themselves. To express that disappointment may hurt the other person. This fits with the Mi’kmaq philosophy of noninterference in another’s life. When the time is right, the disappointment may be discussed. Criticism that is not accompanied by respect may be seen as rejection of the individual. It is better to choose the right words and the right time to correct someone. Sometimes showing by example is the best way.
9. Common sense must be used when making decisions or choices. Common sense is valued as much as formal education.
10. Mi’kmaq people believe that whatever a person gives to others will be returned. This includes kindness and respect. It is better to help a person who is going through a bad experience than to stand back and criticize or judge.
11. Silence should not be taken for consent. In some cases, an individual may want time to reflect on an issue under discussion. If time is not provided for this reflection, silence may result but should not be interpreted as agreement.
12. The state of friendship must include periods of silence to allow for reflection and for refreshing one’s thoughts.
13. Mi’kmaq people believe that no one should wait to be asked to do something. If there is a need for something to be done, an individual is expected to do it.
14. Show respect for guests by preparing a meal as soon as they arrive at your home. Prepare the tea, and if they are in need of it, they will accept it.
15. Men and women will usually gather together as separate groups at any social or community functions. Children are expected to amuse themselves. This custom is not unique to the Mi’kmaq people, and may be seen in operation in other cultural groups. However, with the Mi’kmaq it is usually unacceptable for a person to join a group of the opposite sex. Women will usually tease a male in order to discourage his stay in their group.
16. Children are present at all community gatherings. They are not discouraged from attending meetings, weddings, or wakes. They are expected to take their cue from the adults as to what behaviour is expected of them.
17. When an older man visits a home, it is customary for the woman to leave the men alone to visit. In many cases, she will prepare the customary welcome tea, then take her leave. When an older woman visits the wife in the home, the man will prepare the tea and take his leave. This is done as a sign of respect.
18. Children are encouraged not to interrupt an adult conversation. They are not discouraged from listening-in, but they are not allowed to ask questions. In this way children show respect to the adults. In turn, parents do not interrupt conversation between children. This shows respect for the children.
19. Children and youth are encouraged to show respect for adults at all times. They are also encouraged to express their opinions and share their feelings in matters that affect them personally. They are encouraged to address elderly women as “aunt”, and elderly men as “uncle”, but it is acceptable for them to refer to the parents of their peers by their first names, not Mrs. or Mr.
20. It is customary to serve seniors, elders and children at social gatherings. It shows respect to the seniors for their wisdom, and to the children as the future.
21. Mi’kmaq people believe that each person must take every opportunity to show appreciation for others. An example would be to take a small gift such as food on a visit to someone’s home, especially if it is a first visit.
Source : http://www.mikmaqculture.com/index.php/mikmaq_history_culture/rules_of_protocols
Oral tradition and oral history means to the Native peoples. Before European contact, Mi’kmaq was passed down by elders from generation from generation through teachings of the family. Most of the time, elders taught children about their natural environment. Many of their culture and history by listening to legends and stories of magical creatures. The East Coast learned Mi'kmaw place names and translations that historians can figure out where Mi’kmaq lived and how they traveled.
The rules that the Mi'lmaq and the rules in my own life now are both similar and different. Some people now-a-days follow the rule of protocols 2 but some of them don't. Many people want to kill these animals for their special fur to make money but there are also many different conservatories that prevent these from happening. Right now, adults don't encourage their children to ask questions about death although they would travel long distances to attend the funeral of a family or friend. Instead, they try not attend much funerals. When people attend funerals in the 20th century, they feel really depressed and sad. People don't like this feeling and try to make themselves as happy as they can. It is easier now though because they can travel by plain which is much easier than going by boat or walking. For rule number 7, in the world right now, we have many celebrities. Famous singers and actors that perform for money. They wouldn't show off their talents for free. Now-a-days, if celebrities perform, you would have to pay lots of money just for one ticket.
He is glad that winter is coming because he hunts polar bears for a living. The survival always depended on sustainable use of wildlife so they used every part of the animal they hunted, Although he hunted to earn money, the Inuit always made sure there would be enough so that future generations The man doesn't have a regular and needs money to support his family. The only way to earn money is to hunt polar bears. He said ' if I'm paid for a polar bear I don't get to keep all the money, it goes to support m,y family." In the summer time, there aren't many polar bears . 60% of the polar bears live in Canada so it' can be a good way to earn money that way. Hunting and fishing are very important survival skills when living in the Arctic. Also, when it's winter, people and animals can go to places that are underwater in the summer. Ice melts faster in the spring. so both the hunter and the animals face with changes to their hunting grounds.
He is different from the other Inuit because he doesn't see the polar bear but he can smell the bear. He said that the wind carries the polar bears scent. He also gives respect to the animals, and said admits that the polar bear is smarter than people." If he spots me first, he'll hide where I can't reach him on the pack ice." He can understand the bear and the bear understands him. He respects wild animals by not hunting mother and baby polar bears. They would have no right to touch them. What the man in the video did that was different was that his family would eat 90% of the food that they hunt, if not, his family would sell it to the municipal council to fund our hunting and fishing trips. They would also distribute it to the other village families at no charge.
The changing environment an issue for the Inuit because then both the predator and the prey is faced with challenges abut their hunting grounds. This climate change can also cause global warming which would be a danger for the Inuit families. Many men won't have jobs and can't support their families. This is because because of these climate changes, their prey-the polar bear might be endangered and become extinct. The Inuits survival always depended on sustainable use of wildlife. If they don't have enough wildlife, then their survival will become a risk. The Inuit always hunted in a way that resources can be available for future generations. If now the Inuit can't support themselves, hunting to save these animals for future generations is impossible.
The Inuit respect the polar bear. They respect all wild animals. The Inuit wouldn't kill mother or baby polar bears because they would have no right to touch them. When they did kill a polar bear, they would use every part of the body. Both the hunter and the bear understand each other. The men hunt the animals and they give the skins to the women. The women would tan the hides and make pants and mittens. They would also make clothes suited for the environment and would give the Inuit a source of cultural pride. When the women cooked polar bear meat, she would be cooking traditional foods with it. A women said " When I eat traditional foods, I feel less hungry."
Thank you for watching!