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(AH2) Objective 5 - World War I

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Jerrid Harris

on 11 January 2017

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Transcript of (AH2) Objective 5 - World War I

U.S. Engagement in World War I
Domestic Impact of WWI on America
America created many
new laws
, and
in order to prepare for entry into WWI. A new
spread as
German books were removed from libraries, German classes ere canceled in schools
, Sauerkraut became "
liberty cabbage
," hamburgers became "
liberty steaks
." Even beer was scrutinized for being too "German."
Impact of American on WWI
Although American entered the war very late, and only fought in 2 battles (both in France), our impact on the outcome of the war was significant. Our ability to increase funds, munitions, resources, and manpower for the allies ensured their victory over Germany. This was the reason that America was allowed to take a leadership role at the
Treaty of Versailles
once the war concluded.
The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson
Since America, led by Woodrow Wilson
could not ensure the passage of the original 14 points or joining the League of Nations
, we set events in motion that would result in the beginning of World War II. Germany was scorned by the Treaty, and would await the rise of Adolf Hitler in 1933, as a way to revive the economic strength and national pride of the German Nation.
The U.S. missed a golden opportunity to shape global events, and we were to distracted and short-sighted to see it.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
German Submarines (known as
) sank about 90 ships, both naval and passenger, in the Atlantic Ocean in 1915. Ultimately, when U-boats sank the
on May 7, 1915, with 1,198 lives lost, including 128 Americans, The U.S. decided to act. Although, the Lusitania was carrying 4,200 cases of small arms and munitions, Woodrow Wilson warned Germany to cease USW.
German U-boats torpedoed 2 more passenger ships, the
and the
. Germany made a deal with America, halt the British blockade and Germany would cease USW...The U.S. would NOT agree to this, so the Germans announced on January 31st, 1917, that they would resume USW
Woodrow Wilson was re-elected on a peace platform, but soon after, British spies intercepted a secret German telegram sent from German foreign secretary,
Arthur Zimmerman) known as the Zimmerman Telegram)
. It made a deal with Mexico, that if they attacked America, Germany would negotiate the return of the territory they lost in the Mexican-American War. This was the last straw!!!
Woodrow Wilson stood before Congress on April 2, 1917 and asked for a declaration of war...he got it!!!
America would now go to war in Europe for the first time in history
New laws and limits on civil liberties:
Espionage Act
made spying, sabotage, and interference with the war effort illegal
Sedition Act
made speech that interfered with the united war effort illegal.
The most infamous conviction was of
Eugene V. Debs
American Socialist Party
) when he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for instigating labor disputes. His conviction was upheld under the Supreme Court ruling,
Schenck v. U.S.
in which the court ruled that our freedom of speech can be revoked if it presents a "
clear and present danger
New agencies to streamline the war effort:
- The
Committee on Public Information
, led by George Creel created posters and propaganda in an attempt to gain public support for the war effort. People were persuaded by
the US Food Adm. and the Food and Fuel Control Act
to ration food and gasoline, to grow
"victory gardens"
in backyards, and to buy
"Liberty" War Bonds
in order to secure an American victory in Europe.
- The
War Industries Board
allowed to government to take over economic planning in a crisis. This meant that the gov't would now settle and resolve labor issues, manufacturing, and the shipping of goods. The main focus was military production, machine guns, bullets, tanks, airplanes, uniforms, etc...
- The
National War Labor Board
, led by former president Taft, was created to try and maximize employment as workers were
by the
Selective Service Act
into combat. As a result, workers saw better wages, an 8-hour workday, and the right to unionize peacefully. Also, many women were recruited to work in factories to keep manufacturing going. This would become the catalyst to the passing of the
19th amendment
in 1920.
The Constitutional Consequences:
Finally, the war had a constitutional impact on America. Following the war, once politicians, including Woodrow Wilson recognized the critical role of women in factories, the U.S. (as well as the other nations involved in WWI) granted suffrage to women in the passing of the
19th amendment
. It took almost 100 years, but now women could finally vote. Unfortunately, most women lost or left their jobs after the war to return to domestic roles in the home.
Due to the growing political power of churches and women, the U.S government passed the
18th amendment
to the Constitution in 1919, known as
, it made the manufacturing, sale, and consumption of alcohol illegal. Due to the growth of
organized crime, gangsters, corruption
, and the
overall disobedience of most Americans concerning this law
...it failed and was repealed in 1933.
Woodrow Wilson became the first U.S. president to set foot in Europe. He was there to promote his peace resolution, known as his
14 Points
. Some of these points included (1) the
abolition of secret alliances
, (2)
Freedom of the seas
for trade, (3) a
removal of economic barriers
throughout the world, (4) a significant
reduction in armaments
, and (5) an adjustment of colonial claims that would essentially
end Imperialism
. His 14th point was a proposal for a World Parliament that would work together to assist less developed nations, and to eliminate the possibility of future wars. It was to be called the
League of Nations
. The modern day United Nations is modeled after Wilson's League.
Most of Wilson's 14 points were adjusted, edited, and watered down until they became virtually ineffective. The result was that none of the problems that had created the war were effectively resolved within the
Treaty of Versailles
. The biggest loser in the treaty was Germany. The League of Nations was adopted by everyone at the Treaty of Versailles EXCEPT....America!!! After a long fight between Woodrow Wilson and Republican Senators, known as
(led by
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
) that sought
American isolationism
, the United States did not sign the Treaty of Versailles, and therefore did not join the League. This would result in the inevitable doom ad destruction of the League.
M.A.I.N. causes of World War I
Militarism -
European countries had huge armies and service was mandatory
Alliances (secret) -
certain countries had others backs in case of a conflict
Imperialism -
European countries had colonial claims everywhere
Nationalism -
everyone loved their country and wanted to see it do better than the other guy
Eugene V. Debs
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