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Effective Research: Plagiarism, Citation & Referencing

Basic overview of research skills with an emphasis on Plagiarism, Citation and Referencing. Made for Sixth Form students at The Dixie Grammar School, by the Librarian.

Library Online

on 29 September 2010

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Transcript of Effective Research: Plagiarism, Citation & Referencing

Effective Research Improving your skills Research
Skills Think Ask Read Imagine Create @ Your Library! Key Question:
What is the task that I have to do? What do I have to do? What is the timescale? What do I already know? What do I need to find out? Where can I find the
information I need? What are the keywords
I am going to use? Does this information
answer my questions How do I use this source of information effectively? Who can I ask to help me? Key Question: Which questions should I keep in mind as I search? Key Question: How can I use sources of information effectively? How can I assess and
evaluate my sources? How do I skim and scan
ext for information? What are the best ways of taking
and organising notes? How do I select relevant information? Do I have enough relevant information
to complete the task? How do I compile my bibliography
and cite my sources properly? Key Question: How do I use all of the information I have found? How can I organise this information
so that I can understand it better? Does this information answer my questions? Do I need to find more information? Key Question: How can I share this information with other people? How do I present and communicate the information
bearing in mind the task and the audience? How do I evaluate my work
and improve my skills for next time? How do I make sure that I don't plagiarise
other peoples' work? How do I meet the guidelines for the task? What is
Plagiarism? 'Using or copying the work of others (whether written, printed or in any other form) without proper acknowledgement in any coursework' ? Think Ask Read Imagine Create Does everything have to be recorded? You must record the source of any facts, ideas, images or data. The only time you do not need to do this is when the fact or idea is ‘common knowledge’ You also have to record the source for any images, graphs, charts etc. unless you created them yourself. When do I record? Creating accurate records starts at the note-taking stage. Ask your teacher if the Exam Board wants you to use a particular style because this will tell you the information you need to record. There are some standard things to record. Here are the sources for this presentation! Thanks to my PLN on Twitter for your help with this Prezi
Leeds University Library (2009) Referencing.
Available at:
http://library.leeds.ac.uk/info/200232/referencing (Accessed: 20 November 2009)

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right. Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books.

Pulver, A. and Adcock, D. (2009) Accessing information. Harlow: Heinemann Library.

Simon Fraser University Library (2007) SFU Library Plagiarism Tutorial
Available at:
http://www-old.lib.sfu.ca/researchhelp/tutorials/interactive/plagiarism/tutorial/table-of-contents.htm (Accessed: 20 November 2009)

University of Essex (2009) Authorship and Plagiarism
Available at:
http://www.essex.ac.uk/plagiarism/test2.html (Accessed: 20 November 2009)
Record these: Title
Publication Date
Publisher or source
Place of publication
Start and end pages (for articles and book chapters)
The date you accessed the site

For electronic sources such as web pages, you should record this additional information How do I record? How do I write my bibliography? There are lots of ways On paper with a notepad or cards On your laptop
using Word or Excel On the web using WebNotes, Zotero or EverNote In two places: In the body of your essay.
This is the most common way to do this:
(Robinson, 2009 p. 36). In a list at the end of the essay.
The list is called a BIBLIOGRAPHY Each reference must refer to a source listed in your Bibliography. This bibliography should be formatted in the following way... Example Books Bell, M (2008) Researching on the internet. 3rd edn. London: Heinemann. Web pages Leeds University Library (2009) Referencing.
Available at:
http://library.leeds.ac.uk/info/200232/referencing (Accessed: 20 November 2009) University of Essex (2009) Reeding Lessons (2008) Images Emre Ayca (2009) Zotero mock-up with pdf01. Flickr [Online]
Available at:
(Accessed: 20 November 2009)

Reeding Lessons (2008) Index Card. Flickr [Online]
Available at:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/reedinglessons/2238990839/ (Accessed: 20 November 2009)

All online resources are listed on the Library Online website, under Learning Resources:
http://library-online.org.uk Go straight to Google? Type in the first word you can think of? What is research? Click on the first website? Cut and paste something that looks OK? Mix it all together? Then hand it in? Does this happen to you? Your teacher asks you to add more to your work, but you cannot remember the resources that you used before. Your teacher tells you to "avoid plagiarism". Your teacher tells you to "record and reference your sources". So you need to RECORD your sources... ...REFERENCE them in your work... ...and make a BIBLIOGRAPHY at the end.
For all sources (where possible) Where do I reference my sources? Let's break that down for you: USGS (2010) Volcano Hazards Program.
Available at:
(Accessed 10 June 2010) Author of page Date page was published Title of web site URL (address of web site) Date accessed Giving credit where credit is due... If you agree with something you read in your source, you can use a phrase such as,

"As Joe Smith says in (Smith, 2009).........."

This tells the reader where you found your ideas. Use quotation marks... "If you are quoting from a source, use quotation marks and make sure the sentence includes the information about where you read the quote." (Pulver and Adcock, 2009 p.41) Remember You must RECORD your sources ...and REFERENCE them in your work.... ...and make a BIBLIOGRAPHY at the end. NO YES YES Question 1: It’s the night before your essay is due, and you haven’t done any work. You buy an essay from an online source.
Is this plagiarism?
Question 2: Your friend did the course last year, and he gives you his essay. You re-type the whole paper, changing words here and there and inserting a few of your own ideas.
Is this plagiarism?
Question 3: You need an image for your essay. You go online and find one. You don’t cite the source of your image, because images on the web aren’t protected by copyright.
Is this plagiarism?
Question 4: You copy a paragraph directly from an article you found. You cite the source, but you forget to put quotation marks.
Is this plagiarism?
Question 5: You paraphrase a paragraph from a textbook, but include odd phrases from the original document when you have not been able to think of a way to express it in your own words. You do not put quotation marks around these odd phrases, but do give a reference to the textbook. Is this plagiarism? Question 6: You have a computer programming assignment; you find some code for an existing program on the computer you are using, that a fellow student has left on by accident. You add this code to your computer program to complete the assignment but do not reference where you found it. Is this plagiarism? Question 7: You and a friend are taking the same course and therefore have the same essay to write. The essay is not to be done as group work. You and your friend write your essays in the library together and end up with very similar essays. Is this plagiarism? So, what do I need to do to avoid plagiarism? It's called Referencing!
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