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Professional Lobbying 101

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Elisabeth Gard

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of Professional Lobbying 101

Lobbying: What is it?
The term “lobbyist” has been around since 1850.

Legend has it the name came from the individuals who used to wait in the lobby of the Willard Hotel for Members of Congress or public officials who dined there. Individuals would basically “hang out” in the lobby, waiting for the opportunity to have an informal conversation with the policy-maker in the hotel lobby, often resulting in having influenced a decision or vote.

The first amendment of the constitution protects Americans’ right to petition the government on any issue they see fit.

Advocacy compared to Lobbying
Principals of Lobbying
Roles of a Lobbyist
Grassroots Advocate
Marquette Office of Public Affairs
Governmental and Community Affairs
City Relations
County Relations
State Relations
Federal Relations
Neighborhood Relations
Community Issues
On Campus Home to the Les Aspin Center for Government
University Special Events
Special Projects

Definition of Lobbying:

An attempt by an individual or group to influence the legislative or administrative process by communicating with elected officials.

The facilitation of an exchange of important ideas and information between the government and private parties.
The Willard Hotel Lobby
“Lobbying is always advocacy.
Advocacy isn’t always lobbying.”
—Gear Up for Capitol Hill, ProLiteracy

Public and Private Partnerships
The Government gives money to private institutions because...

Provision of a service for the benefit of society
(i.e., in the public interest) that the government
may not be able to provide for a variety of reasons, including expertise, capacity, geography, etc.
Professional Lobbying 101
Main Tools

Importance of Networking
Building relationships
Maintaining relationships

Be honest
Be flexible
Be willing to negotiate – important to get to a deal, not always to a win
Must be registered to work on behalf on an entity and follow the ethics laws

The Wall Street of Washington D.C.
Sources of Interpersonal Power
Referent Power
Legitimate Power
Coercive Power
Reward Power
Expert Power
Referent power:
Position inherently gains respect despite actual knowledge of the person, i.e: a firefighter or a soldier. This power is based on interpersonal attraction.

Legitimate power:
Persuading using reputation. The agent and target agree that agent has influential rights, based on position and mutual agreement

Coercive Power:
Persuade using consequences to doing the opposite of what you want. Such as, the agent’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target.
Reward Power:
Persuade using benefits to both parties so that everyone wins. Such as, the agent’s ability to control the rewards that the target wants.

Expert power:
Using expertise on a subject to persuade. The agent has knowledge the target needs.

Background of a Lobbyist
Political Science
Law School
Liberal Arts
Health Sciences
Any degree
Work Experience:
Congressional Staffers
Campaign Workers
Nonprofit Staff
Business Professionals
Legal Professionals
Many more
Lobbying: A Growing Industry
Total lobbying expenditures on Congress and federal bureaucracy
Money spent on lobbying has steadily increased over time, and steeply outpaces inflation
Data is an understatement of actual lobbying activities, due to “gray area” in lobbying law
Center for Responsive Politics, based on data from Senate Office of Public Records, downloaded Jan. 27, 2014. *Numbers are only of registered lobbyists. http://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/index.php

Lack of green space for student recreation and club sports.

Vacant, unsightly property for the city.

Argument based on

because solution to problem is mutually beneficial.

In 2004, the Near West Side Area Comprehensive Plan identified the park as a neighborhood development project, recommended a partnership with a local institution for operation.

is used because Marquette is a known neighbor with positive reputation (
) based on other partnerships (e.g. Avenue’s West sub-station).

Action Taken
MUSG demands ->
-> OPA, Rec Sports strategize
-> Consult Avenues West Assoc.
-> Alderman Bauman proposal
-> Common Council passes legislation
-> Mayor Barrett signs legislation into law

The university invests in the improvements within a year of the lease and pays $1 to the city each year through 2035. DPW removes asphalt, plants grass, and renovates field house.
Change 18th St. from one-way to two-way to accommodate increased traffic flow.
Park opened daily to children of Milwaukee Rescue Mission School for recess as a safe place to play.

Goals for Governmental and Community Affairs
Positive working relationships with elected and other public officials at all levels of government.

Increase government funding and overall value to the university, neighborhood, and community at-large. Includes “Peace of Mind” issues.
Strong presence in neighborhood organizations and ongoing role in neighborhood development.

Greater relevance to university departments through outreach and communication.

Serve as point of contact for community – dot connectors
Wells Street
Unsafe pedestrian crossing
Median as “midblock sanctuary” & aesthetic improvement to retail district (

Public Works Committee
Ald. Dudzik
11th District
Vice Chair

Wells Street Median Legislation
The resolution is passed by the Public Works Committee (5-0) and sent to the Common Council on September 24, 2008

After it passed the Public Works Committee, a draft is sent to the Common Council. The Common Council consists of 15 voting members.

The Resolution passed unanimously on October 7th, 2008 with 14 “yay” votes (14-0)

Mayor Barrett signed the resolution on October 9th, 2008

MUSG ->Alderman -> OPA -> Stakeholders

Final Resolution:
City funds road infrastructure, and Marquette funds the aesthetic improvements
Ald. Bauman
4th District
Ald. Donovan
8th District
Ald. Puente
9th District
Ald. Wade
7th District
Completed Project on
Wells Street
Marquette Interchange Project
Phase 1: Lobbying the Legislature
Original plans called for the elimination of the 13th Street exit ramp and the creation of an 11th Street entrance ramp between Carpenter and Cobeen Halls. MU is politely dismissed by WisDOT.

MU gets divided legislature to unanimously insert the 13th Street exit into the state budget. DOT gets the governor to veto the language. (

As a result, DOT is more willing to sit down with MU to listen to our concerns. DOT includes the 13th Street Exit in their final plans. (

Phase 2: Lobbying the Congress
As a coalition with WisDOT and MMAC, MU leverages its relationships with the Wisconsin Congressional Delegation to earmark federal funding for the Marquette Interchange Project.
Phase 3: Mitigation work with WisDOT
MU and DOT have a great working relationship. Even though we are not equals, DOT treats MU and other stakeholders as partners. (

Major accommodations made to MU throughout project: Color Committee, 11th Street Wiggle, exam/event schedules, pedestrian safety, ramp configurations, aesthetics, etc.

Phase 4: MU License Plate
Working in consultation with DOT, we discuss the best type of plate to pursue– non-fundraising plate and MU offers to pay the up front costs of the design and development of the plate.

Dental School
Sept. 2010 - MU submits request for $8 million expansion to State Building Commission

March/April 2011 - State Building Commission and Joint Committee on Finance approve expansion fund

2012 - MUSOD receives $8 million from the Wisconsin State Building Commission and breaks ground on expanded facility.

August 2013: MUSOD welcomes expanded dental class

Used principles of
Thank you for Smoking (2005)
Charlie Wilson's War (2007)
Communicating the Issues

Need for services
Demand for services
Personal experiences
The Issues + "The Ask"

Need for services
Demand for services
Personal experiences
Specific legislative language
Request for money
Lobbying Today
Top lobbying victories of 2013

Twitter hired its first lobbyist

Tobacco lobbying on the rise throughout New York

Google again tops tech spending on lobbying

Facebook turns 10, "Leaning In" to Washington

Lobbying Avenues
State Legislature - Assembly and Senate
State Committees - Joint Committee on Finance
State Agencies - WisDOT
Congress - House of Representatives and U.S. Senate
Federal Committees - Appropriations, Health, Labor & Pensions
Federal Agencies - Department of Education
Private Organizations:
Legally Blonde 2 (2003)
Why does the Government give money to
private institutions?
Full transcript