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Transcript of EARTHQUAKES
Before and After: San Francisco 1906
Fryer, Gerald, Dr. "What Causes Earthquakes?" The Causes of Earthquakes. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics & Planetelogy, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
"Are You Prepared?" Are You Prepared? San Francisco Department of Emergency Management, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
"Earthquake Facts." Earthquake Facts. U.S. Department of the Interior, 24 July 2012. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
Musi, Vincent J. "Volcano Safety Tips." National Geographic. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.
"The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale." Department of the Interior. USGS. Web. 29 Sept. 2013
"The Richter Magnitude Scale." Department of the Interior. USGS. Web. 28 Sept. 2013
An opening on the planet's surface that allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface.
How are they formed!?
How are they related
the sudden shaking of the Earth's surface caused by the rock masses that
suddenly shift in position.
What are Earthquakes?
Where Earthquakes Occur
Areas that experience earthquakes because tension in the Earth is released from rocks in the Earth crust and upper mantle.
Most Earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. The plates are moved around by the motion of a deeper part of the Earth, the mantle, that lies underneath the crust.
the study of earthquakes and the waves they make
San Andreas Fault
Damages Caused by Earthquakes
More On Earthquakes
Magnitude and Intensity
Focus and Epicenter
How buildings are being modified to prevent damage
Rubber-lead base isolation bearings
Steel plate shear walls system
Russia, May 24
Pakistan, September 24
Alaska, January 5
Papau New Guinea, July 7
measuring methane levels
monitoring smoke/ash levels in the surrounding areas
"...repeated 'see-sawing' of the two sides."
"If San Francisco had been at or near the fault line, there would be nothing left of it."
"We found 23,200 breaks in the piping system."
strata is the Latin definition of "layered"
Types of Volcanoes
Cinder Cone Volcanoes
steep-sided, symmetrical cones of large dimension built of alternating layers
built up slowly by the accretion of thousands of highly fluid lava flows called basalt lava
Built from layers of eruptive materials - lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash
examples include: St. Helens, Vesuvius, Krakatoa
Crater Lake, Oregon
Crater Lake is the end state of Mount Mazama, which is a caldera volcano.
Since volcanoes can be predictable, an organized evacuation would save almost all or most of the people living
in the surrounding areas.
Parícutin is a cinder cone volcano in the Mexican state of Michoacán, close to a lava-covered village of the same name.
Cinder Cone Volcanoes
lava from a shield volcano is very fluid, and flows a very long way before hardening.
very broad and convex like a giant Greek warrior's shield
~Harry Kaiakokonok (eyewitness June 6, 1912)
"And then afternoon—sometime in the afternoon—it was just like this, bright sunshine, hot,
no wind, that’s when the volcano started. Started snowing like that fine pumice coming down.
Make a lot of noise, the size of rice, some of it, some of it smaller, and some of it bigger, and
some of it was as big as a kettle or pot. Kaflia Bay started to get white gradually. "
Mount Sylvania, Oregon
the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle
built from particales and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single volcanic vent
Top photograph courtesy Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley; bottom photograph © 2005 Mark Klett, with Michael Lundgren
Testimony of Herman Schussler, Chief Engineer, Spring Valley Water Works, Whittier-Coburn Co. v. Alliance Co. Ltd. of London, U.S. District Court, San Francisco, Case 14193, 1908.