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Transcript of Maple Syrup
Butler High School Statement of the Problem Project Overview Research Variables Controlled Variables: The Maple syrup, the cooking pans
Independent Variable: The temperature
Dependent Variable: The growth of the crystals formed from the cooling process. Change is measured by the use of a ruler Hypothesis If the maple syrup is put under the right circumstances in cool temperatures after being heated, then crystals can form in different shapes and sizes because the sugar molecules get hot and bump into each other causing them to stick together Materials Procedure 1) Before you heat the maple syrup, make a sheet of ice by placing a thin layer of water in a baking pan and keeping it in the freezer until it is frozen solid.
2) Once the water in the baking pan is frozen, heat the maple syrup over medium heat in the saucepan, stirring constantly. Note: You will need the help of an adult for this part.
3) Bring it to a boil and allow it to cook, uncovered, until it is very thick and viscous. Keep stirring to make sure that it does not burn.
4) Set out the baking pan with the sheet of ice on the counter top. On another flat area of the counter, set out the other room-temperature baking pan.
5) On another flat area of the counter, set out the other room-temperature baking pan. Procedure 6) Use your spoon to drop one dollop of the hot, thick maple syrup onto the ice or onto the room-temperature baking pan. You might want to drop the dollop on the frozen baking sheet first, before the ice melts.
7) Do not touch the dollop yet—it will still be really hot!
8) Watch as the maple syrup cools. Use a stopwatch to time how long it takes for crystals to form and solidify on the dollop.
9) Observe the shape and measure the length of the crystals. Use a magnifying glass to get a close look at the crystals.
10) Record your observations about how long it took for the crystals to form and how the rate of cooling affected their size in your lab notebook. Use a data table like the one below. Remember, your notes and observations should be clear enough that someone else could use them to reproduce your results. Procedure pt.3
11) Repeat steps 6-9 until you have observed at least three dollops on each baking sheet. If your first dollop was on the frozen baking sheet, you might want to drop your next two dollops there, too, before the ice melts. However, if it does start to melt, simply refreeze it and you can continue with your trials on the room-temperature baking sheet. Method for Cooling Syrup Length of Crystals Time Until First Crystal Visible Ice on baking sheet Room-temperature baking pan Notes Data/Observations Conclusion Works Cited Why do crystals form after you heat the syrup, but not in unheated syrup? In this project we will cook maple syrup until it becomes thick and viscous, then we will let it cool. We will examine how the rate of cooling affects crystal structure. Maple syrup is a concentrated solution of sugar in water, just with many minor flavoring compounds.
When maple syrup is heated, some of the water evaporates off and the sugar becomes concentrated.
The crystals line up and arrange themselves in an orderly and repetitive pattern, just like a periodic table.
So while the water evaporates, the sugar molecules bump into one another so often because there are so many of them.
When they bump into each other the molecules end up sticking together, this slow process is how the crystal grows. Small baking pan filled with a thin layer of water and frozen to create a flat sheet of ice
Pure maple syrup (not the imitation syrup)
A second small baking pan at room temperature
Ruler 3) Helmenstine, A. (2012, 11 12). Grow maple syrup crystals. Retrieved from http://chemistry.about.com/b/2012/11/22/grow-maple-syrup-crystals.htm 4) Whyte, D. (2012, 12 07). Maple syrup: For pancakes, waffles, and..crystal candy? . Retrieved from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/FoodSci_p044.shtml 1) Campbell, H. (n.d.). What is a crystal? crystal defined. Retrieved from http://www.chemistry.co.nz/crystals_defined.htm 2) Crystallization. (2013, 01 23). Retrieved from http://orgchem.colorado.edu/Technique/Procedures/Crystallization/Crystallization.html After boiling and letting the sugar molecules cool, I found that my hypothesis was correct. Several different shapes and sizes of crystals appeared when set out to cool in different environments. There were larger crystals when set to cool nice and slowly on the room temp pan, and smaller crystals when set to cool on a thin layer of ice. 1 mm 1/2 to 1 in 00:01:13 00:02:30 since the cooling was rapidly down the sugar molecules were not able to stick together that well Since the cooling was down nice and slowly the sugar molecules were able to stick together and form nicely arranged crystals 5) Childs, S. (2007). Chemisty of maple syrup. Retrieved from http://www.nnyagdev.org/maplefactsheets/CMB 202 Chemistry of Maple Syrup1.pdf