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Industrialization, Immigration & Urbanization at the Turn of the Century
Transcript of Industrialization, Immigration & Urbanization at the Turn of the Century
IMMIGRATION & URBANIZATION
THE NEW IMMIGRANTS
CITIES EXPAND & CHANGE
SOCIAL & CULTURAL TRENDS
SEVERAL FACTORS LED TO THE INCREASED INDUSTRIAL GROWTH DURING THE CIVIL WAR. THIS LAID THE GROUNDWORK FOR POSTWAR PROSPERITY.
Analyze the factors that led to the industrialization of the United States in the late 1800s.
Explain how new inventions and innovations changed Americans' lives.
Describe the impact of industrialization in the late 1800s
How did industrialization and new technology affect the economy and society?
America began a major transformation after the end of the Civil War marked by expanding business and industrialization.
This "second industrial revolution," led by scientists and inventors, improved people's daily lives.
Factories used new tools and methods to produce supplies in big numbers
Railroads expanded across the nation.
The government encouraged immigration.
A great many immigrants to the U.S. were pushed from their homelands by:
Political upheaval at home
The american system of capitalism is one in which individuals own most businesses. These entrepreneurs invest money in products in order to make profits.
Entrepreneurs fueled industrialization in the late 1800s
They benefited from laissez-faire policies, which allowed businesses to work under minimal government regulation
Major Inventions of the 1800s
1844 - Samuel Morse - Telegraph
1846 - Elias Howe - Sewing Machine
1852 - Elisha Otis - Safety Elevator
1880 - Thomas Edison - Light Bulb
1884 - Granville Woods - Steam Boiler
Thomas Edison was the most prolific inventor of the era.
He and his team of workers developed the light bulb, the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and hundreds of new products.
Daily life changed dramatically as a result of new technologies.
Morse's telegraph gave rise to a communications revolution. The telephone debuted in 1876, the wireless telegraph in 1896.
The Bessemer Process, which purified iron to create steel, changed construction. Steel made skyscrapers and suspension bridges possible.
This led to the physical and economic growth of cities
Chicago, Atlanta, and Pittsburgh became important hubs
Railroads Changed America
They encouraged innovation.
Air brakes were invented in 1869
Refrigerated cars were invented to transport food
Time zones were set
They led to the growth of industry
Businesses obtained raw materials easily
They sold products to people far away
America exported grain, steel, and textiles in huge amounts and became a world economic power.
Mechanization of farming meant fewer farmers were needed to produce food.
Many Americans moved to cities to find work
People began to raise concerns about the impact of industrialization on the environment
In response, Congress set aside protected lands. Yellowstone Park was created in 1872
Analyze different methods that businesses used to increase their profits.
Describe the public debate over the impact of big business.
Explain how the government took steps to block abuses of corporate power.
THE RISE OF BIG BUSINESS
John D. Rockefeller
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Sherman Antitrust Act
How did big business shape the American economy in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
The growth of big business in the late 1800s changed American society.
The rise of business empires turned the U.S. into an economically powerful nation.
Industrialization changed how businesses were run.
Business leaders combined funds and resources.
Investors formed corporations that protected them from losing more than original investment.
A corporation could operate in different regions.
Corporations worked to maximize profits
paying workers low wages
paying lower prices for raw materials
supporting research labs
Monopolies and cartels - competitors were forced out of business
Horizontal Integration - A system of consolidating many firms in the same business to lower production costs
Vertical Integration - the practice of gaining control of many different businesses that make up all phases of a product's development
Horizontal & Vertical Integration allowed corporations to have better control of production and it reduced costs.
Corporations used strategies to eliminate competition and decrease costs.
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER - STANDARD OIL
ANDREW CARNEGIE - U.S. STEEL
CORNELIUS VANDERBILT - RAILROADS
Were the tycoons "robber barons" who swindled the poor and drove small businesses under?
Or..."Captains of Industry" who served the nation and made prices of goods cheaper?
TYCOONS OF THE LATE 1800s
Big Business Is Bad for Small Business?
Or Is Big Business Good for the Nation?
It provides jobs
Allows for product innovations
Financially supports universities, libraries, and museums
LIMITING CORPORATE POWER
The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and the Sherman Antitrust Act began a trend toward government limits on corporate power.
ICC - Oversaw railroad operations
Sherman Antitrust Act - Passed in 1880, outlawed trusts that restrained trade among several states
SOCIAL DARWINISM - SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
CHARLES DARWIN'S IDEA OF EVOLUTION OF SPECIES
Applied to American capitalism
led to the idea of Social Darwinism
This is the belief that wealth was a measure of a person's value and those who had wealth were the most "fit."
Social Darwinists believed government should stay out of private business and thought it was wrong to use public funds to assist the poor.
Americans who worried about the methods of industrialists called for federal regulation of business practices.
THE ORGANIZED LABOR MOVEMENT
ASSESS THE PROBLEMS THAT WORKERS FACED IN THE LATE 1800s
COMPARE THE GOALS AND STRATEGIES OF DIFFERENT LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.
ANALYZE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF STRIKES.
sweatshop Haymarket Square Riot
company town Homestead Strike
collective bargaining Eugene V. Debs
socialism Pullman Strike
Knights of Labor
Terence V. Powderly
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
How did the rise of labor unions shape relations among workers, big business, and government???
The booming American economy relied on workers, who began to rebel against low pay and unsafe working conditions.
Struggles between business owners and workers intensified.
Industrial workers faced hardships
Factory owners employed people who would work for low wages. Many of these people were immigrants.
They often labored in dangerous sweatshops.
Laborers often had to live in company towns and buy goods at high interest at company stores
LABOR UNIONS FORMED
Workers tried collective bargaining to gain more power against employers.
the process by which working conditions are negotiated and agreed upon by a union with an employer on behalf of all the employees
LABOR UNIONS OF
THE LATE 1800s
KNIGHTS OF LABOR
(1) Included all workers from any trade
(2) Devoted to broad social reform
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL)
(1) Included skilled workers
(2) Focused on specific worker issues
AMERICAN RAILWAY UNION (ARU)
(1) Included railway workers
(2) Conducted the Pullman Strike of 1894
A movement called Socialism spread through Europe in the 1830s
It held that wealth should be more fairly distributed among people.
Most Americans rejected socialism, but some labor activist borrowed ideas from it to support social reform.
As membership in unions grew in the 1870s, a wave of confrontations between labor and management rocked the country.
LABOR VS. MANAGEMENT
A major strike of railroad workers in 1877 resulted in the federal government sending in troops to restore order.
LABOR STRIKES SPREAD
Across the nation, workers mounted demonstrations for more rights. One such protest in Chicago turned violent.
The 1886 Haymarket Riot made many Americans wary of labor unions.
Yet another conflict broke out with the Homestead Strike. Troops were called in to quell fighting between workers and Carnegie Steel.
One year later, the Pullman Palace Car Company laid off rail workers and cut wages.
This touched off the Pullman Strike, which halted nationwide railroad traffic and mail delivery.
The government ordered strike organizers, led by Eugene V. Debs, to end the Strike
He refused and was sent to jail. Troops were called in to end the strike
EFFECTS OF THE LABOR MOVEMENT
Workers in unions challenged power of big business and made possible the improvement in working conditions for average workers.
Contract disputes and strikes continued to occur as American industry grew.
Compare the "new immigration" of the late 1800s to earlier immigration.
Explain the push and pull factors leading immigrants to America.
Describe the challenges that immigrants faced in traveling to America.
Ananlyze how immigrants adapted to American life while trying to maintain familiar cultural practices.
"New" Immigrant Americanization
Steerage Ellis Island
Angel Island "Melting Pot"
Nativism Chinese Exclusion Act
WHY DID IMMIGRANTS COME TO THE U.S., AND WHAT IMPACT DID THEY HAVE UPON SOCIETY?
Immigrants came to the U.S. for religious and political freedom, for economic opportunities, and to escape war.
Immigrants adopted parts of American culture, and Americans adopted parts of immigrant cultures.
The foreign-born population of the U.S. nearly doubled between 1870-1900
Old Immigrants (pre-1870s)
Mainly Protestants from Northern/Western Europe
Came as families to settle on farms with family members
Had money, a skill or trade, or an eduction
New Immigrants (post-1870s)
Were mainly Catholics or Jews from Southern/Eastern Europe
Sometimes came alone, usually settled in cities
Were often poor and unskilled
Immigrants to the U.S. from Southern/Eastern Europe made up 70% of all immigrants after 1900, up from 1% mid century.
farmers were pressured by land reform and low prices
revolution and war disrupted economies and left political refugees
religious persecution forced many to flee violence
U.S. offered plentiful land, employment, and opportunity
many "chain immigrants" already had family in the U.S.
immigrants could find religious/political freedom in America
Coming to America was often a tough decision. Immigrants usually brought only what they could carry and traveled by steamship in steerage.
When the immigrants arrived after their long journeys, they were processed at stations such as Ellis Island in New York harbor.
There, officers conducted legal and medical inspections. Only 2% were denied entry into the U.S.
Chinese and other Asian immigrants crossing the Pacific were processed at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. Many Chinese were turned away.
Some Chinese immigrants were detained at Angel Island for weeks/months in poor conditions.
They waited to see if they would be allowed to stay in the U.S.
Once in America, immigrants had to find a home/work. They also had to learn English and new customs.
Many stayed in cities and took jobs in factories. They lived in ethnic neighborhoods called ghettoes.
Large cities such as New York and Chicago had huge immigrant populations by 1890.
Immigrants had some help coping with their new surroundings
Settlement houses ran Americanization programs to help recent immigrants learn English and adopt American dress/diet.
Immigrants found fraternal associations - based on ethnic/religious identity - provided social services and financial assistance.
Many believed that American society was a "melting pot" where people of different nationalities blended to create a single culture.
This model excluded Asian immigrants, who became targets of social and legal discrimination
Despite the hopes of settlement workers, immigrants often held on to their traditions.
They established their own fraternal lodges, schools, and religious institutions, such as churches.
Immigrants' children, however, became more Americanized.
Immigrants often dealt with nativism and hostility from native-born white Americans.
Religious differences and competition for jobs and housing led to division and prejudice.
In 1882, Congress started to restrict immigration to the U.S.
The Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers, limited the rights of Chinese immigrants, and forbade the naturalization of Chinese residents.
Immigrants transformed American society.
They fueled industrial growth
They helped build the railroads and worked in factories, mills, and mines.
Their traditions became a part of American culture.
Increasingly, they became active in labor unions and politics, and they demanded reforms.
Push factors for immigration are those that push people from their homes, while pull factors are those that attract them to a new place.
Analyze the causes of urban growth in the late 1800s
Explain how technology improved city life
Evaluate how city dwellers solved the problems caused by rapid urban growth
URBANIZATION RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRANT
SKYSCRAPER ELISHA OTIS
MASS TRANSIT SUBURB
TENEMENT FREDERICK LAW OLMSTEAD
City dwellers faced the noise, dirt, and crime of the cities, the hardships of factory work, and the overcrowded, dangerous conditions of tenements.
Government and city planners tried to alleviate dangerous conditions and make cities better, safer places to live.
WHAT CHALLENGES DID CITY DWELLERS FACE, AND HOW DID THEY MEET THEM?
In 1860, most Americans lived in rural areas, with only 16% living in towns or cities, with a population of at least 8,000.
By 1900, 32% - 1.5M Americans lived in cities with populations of more than 50,000
This period was the beginning of an upsurge in American urbanization that brought changes to the country.
America's major cities were manufacturing and transportation centers connected by railway lines.
The cities were in the Northeast, on the Pacific coast, and along waterways in the Midwest.
Life was hard in the cities, but most people preferred them to the country.
workers' children could attend city schools
churches, theaters, social clubs, and museums offered companionship and entertainment
most city workers were able to enjoy a higher standard of living, and some moved into the growing middle class
Many rural-to-urban migrants move to cities in the 1890s.
Immigrants, Farmers, and Migrants from the Rural West
They were attracted by land & economic opportunity
it was hard for farmers to rigid schedules in crowded factories, but factories paid wages in cash
Majority of African Americans stayed in southern cities
But African American migrants to northern and western cities paved the way for a much larger migration after WWI.
AS CITIES GREW, AMERICAN INNOVATORS DEVELOPED NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE LIVING CONDITIONS
SKYSCRAPERS: Steel-framed buildings 10 stories or taller, built because there was no room to build on the ground
SAFETY ELEVATORS: Invented by Elisha Otis, made taller buildings practical
CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS: made to carry heat to all parts of a building
MASS TRANSIT RESHAPED THE NATION'S CITIES
New streetcars powered by overhead cables
Cleaner, quieter, more efficient than coal trains or horse carriages
Made possible for middle and upper-class people to move to the suburbs
As cities grew, planners began to use zoning to designate certain parts of the city for certain functions.
Spaces for heavy industry, financial institutions, homes, and public spaces
Frederick Law Olmstead - Central Park in NYC
Many neighborhoods became overcrowded
Some poor workers lived in tenements - unhealthy and dangerous with few windows and little sanitation
At this time, cities had filthy, unpaved streets and sanitation problems, conditions perfect for breeding epidemics.
To solve these problems, government/city planners tried to regulate housing, sanitation, sewers, and public health.
They began to take water from clean reservoirs and to use water filtration systems.
Cities responded to the threats of fire and crime with professionals: fire fighters, police forces, electric streetlights.
However, the police were unable to overcome the challenge of conflict between different racial groups, classes and neighborhoods
Analyze the ways Americans developed a mass culture
Mark Twain Conspicuous Consumerism
Gilded Age Mass Culture
Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst
What luxuries did cities offer to the middle class?
During the last part of the 19th century, a new middle class lifestyle gained popularity and influence in America.
Though some disliked the values of this era, the shared American culture created then would persist for the next century.
In his 1873 novel, THE GILDED AGE, novelist Mark Twain satirically depicted American society as gilded, or having a rotten core covered in gold paint.
Most Americans were not as cynical, but Twain's label stuck and historians call the late 19th century the GILDED AGE.
Industrialization and urbanization changed the lives of American workers, as more people began to work for wages rather than themselves on farms.
More people had more money, and more products were available.
For many, this led to a culture of conspicuous consumerism
One of the effects of the spread of transportation, communication, and advertising was that Americans became more alike in their consumption patterns.
Rich & Poor wore the same clothing styles
People bought the same kinds of products
This phenomenon is known as MASS CULTURE
The newspapers of the Gilded Age both reflected and helped create mass culture.
Joseph Pulitzer believed that the job of the newspaper was to inform people and to stir up controversy. His papers were sensationalistic.
The sensationalistic newspapers of William Randolph Hearst competed with Pulitzer's papers for readers.
During the Gilded Age, literature & art that explored harsh realities was popular.
Stephen Crane wrote about NYC slums
Horatio Alger wrote about characters who succeeded through hard work.
Public education expanded rapidly, as grade-school education became compulsory, more teenagers began attending high schools, and kindergartens opened.
As a result, the literacy rate climbed to nearly 90% by 1900.
EDUCATION FOR ALL
IMMIGRANTS: Schools taught English and helped Americanize them.
WOMEN: Few careers, upsurge in women's colleges, state universities begin accepting women
AFRICAN AMERICANS: limited access to white institutions; growth in colleges/universities for African Americans
Employers successfully appealed for court orders against unions.