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Transcript of Electrostatic Series
2. How is a Static Electrical charge created?
3. What does the law of Electric Charges state? The study of static electric charge The study of static electric charge The atoms making up an object gain or lose electrons Like charges repel one another and unlike charges attract one another Charge on an object? When we rub a rubber balloon against our hair, what happens to electrons? The hair LOSES electons, and becomes positively charged
The rubber balloon GAINS electrons and becomes negatively charged How do we know this? So... The Electrostatic Series You can use a list called the electrostatic series to determine the kind of charge produced on each substance when any two substances on the list are rubbed together (friction) If an object is higher on the list, it loses electrons and becomes positively charged If an object is lower on the list, it gains electrons and becomes negatively charged The Electrostatic Series Positively Charged Negatively Charged Acetate
Gold Increasing Tendancy to Gain Electrons Insulators & Conductors An electrical insulator is a substance in which electrons cannot move freely from atom to atom If some atom on an insulator becomes negatively charged, this charge remains on these same atoms until some stronger force comes along and causes it to change. This is why you have to dust constantly - wood and glass are both good insulators and the charge remains in items made of these substances, constantly attracting dust Insulators & Conductors Electrical conductors are substances in which electrons can move freely between atoms Not this type of conductor Copper is an excellent conductor Insulators & Conductors There is no clear divide between insulating substances and conducting substances.
It's more of a scale, where differing materials have differing conductivities. Good Conductor
/Poor Insulator Good Insulator
/Poor Conductor Copper wire
Other metals Wood
Plastic Induction When a charged object approaches a neutral object, the force of the charge causes the electrons within the neutral object to shift This creates an induced charge within the neutral object, where one side is negative and the other side is positive If object A is negatively charged, the electrons in object B will shift to the side farthest away from object A
If object A is postively charged, the electrons in object B will shift to the side closest to object A The movement of electrons in a substance, caused by the force of a nearby charged object, without direct contact between the substance and the object
Induction How does lightning work? Storm clouds are full of churning raindrops, ice particles and hailstones
The friction from their collisions causes the top of the cloud to have a positive charge and the bottom of the cloud to have a negative charge
The negative charge on the bottom induces a positive charge in the ground and buildings below
This creates an attraction between the cloud and the ground When the attraction becomes strong enough, a bolt of lightning connects the cloud and the ground The End