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Chapter 20: The United States Looks Overseas
Transcript of Chapter 20: The United States Looks Overseas
Section 3: The United States and Latin America
The United States Goes To War
Governing Cuba and Puerto Rico
Protectorate: An independent country whose policies are controlled by an outside power.
Cuba was a protectorate of the United States that's why they considered themselves, "As free as a dog on a leash."
U.S replaced Spain as the leading Caribbean power.
1902- Congress forced Cuba to include Platt Amendment in its new Constitution.
The Foraker act of 1900- Set up a government in Puerto Rico with a United States appointed governor
1917- Puerto Ricans were made citizens of the U.S
At first McKinley wanted it to be peaceful between the Spain and the rebels.
He didn't want war disrupting the economy
But on April 11,1898 he asked Congress to declare war on Spain, and 9 days later, they did so
Section 2: The Spanish-American War
Section 1: Eyes On The Pacific
Opening Japan to Trade
Japan blocked outside trade and barred foreigners from entering or leaving the country.
Matthew C. Perry: Commander of heavily armed U.S war ships in 1853, which sailed into the Tokyo bay.
Perry gave Japan a letter from the president, calling Japan to grant trading rights to the Americans. In 1854 they signed a treaty for trading with Japan.
Japan got influenced by the U.S's power
Chapter 20: The United States Looks Overseas
William Seward: Secretary of State that bought Alaska from Russia.
Seward favored U.S expansion and saw Alaska as a trading point.
U.S purchased Alaska for $7.2 million, about 2 cents an acre.
It increased U.S by almost 1/5.
Americans called it "Seward's Folly" or "Seward's Icebox."
They changed their opinions when gold and oil was discovered there.
The Cubans started a new revolt again in 1895, so the Spanish started a policy called reconcentration.
Reconcentration: The forced movement of large numbers of people into detention camps for military or political reasons.
Jose Marti: Cuba's greatest poet who led Cuban exiles to the U.S, and urged the U.S to help them.
He had long dreamed of Independence in Cuba but was killed before he could really see it happen.
Rebellion In Cuba
A canal across central America could link Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Teddy was determined to build it because:
it improved global shipping
made it easier for U.S navy to defend the new overseas empire.
Linking the Oceans
The Expansionist Mood
The Turner Thesis and Promoting Economic Growth
Rivalry For Samoa
Interest In Hawaii
Open Door Policy
Remember the Maine
Surprise in the Philippines
Fall of Manila
War in the Caribbean
Debating the Treaty
Revolt in the Philippines
Choosing a site
Revolt in Panama
Relations With Mexico
Isolationism: Avoiding Involvement in other countries affairs.
Imperialism: Building empires imposing political and economical control over people around the world.
Americans started wanting to extend overseas.
They wanted to promote economic growth and spread American values
Expansionists: Supporters of Expansion
Fredrick Jackson Turner: The Historian who put forth the idea that the Western Frontier had defined American History.
It basically meant Western expansion was complete.
It influenced and inspired expansionists everywhere, including Theodore Roosevelt, to expand overseas.
Alfred T. Mahan: Top supporter of Expansion who said that building trade was the future of U.S prosperity.
Samoa was a chain of Islands in the South Pacific.
Steamship companies and the U.S navy wanted to set up coaling stations there.
Britain and Germany also wanted Samoa and in 1889 all three countries sent warships to Samoa.
The Fighting was cut off when a Typhoon destroyed their warships.
In 1899 The U.S and Germany divided the Islands of Samoa between them.
Samoa had no say in it whatsoever.
Expansionists believed that Hawaii could serve as a "military and commercial outpost in the Pacific."
In 1820 the first American missionaries came trying to convert the Hawaiians to Christianity.
1887- Americans forced Hawaiian King to accept a constitution that gave them power.
Lililuokalani: Kalakaua's sister who took over Hawaii after her brother died in 1891. She was a strong supporter of Independence and refused to acknowledge the 1887 constitution.
1893, American planters organize an uprising without letting U.S government know.
They convinced a U.S official to land 50 U.S marines there to help them overthrow the queen and set up an american government.
President Grover Cleveland rejected the annexing, saying that the revolt had been illegal
William McKinley, Cleveland's successor, supported a treaty to achieve it,, though.
On July 7, 1898, The congress voted to make Hawaii a territory of the U.S
Spheres of Influence: Areas where another nation has economic and political control.
Japan and other countries were forcing China to grant them land and trading rights.
At first Americans didn't partake in the activity, but as more powers started carving up china, Americans feared they would be excluded from the China trade.
In 1899, John Hay, U.S secretary of State, issued a message to the other powers asking them to keep an "open door" to china.
The nations responded most neither saying yes or no but Hay declared that the Open Door Policy had been accepted either way.
Chinese resented foreign influences in their country.
They organized a secret society called The Righteous and Harmonious Fists (which most Europeans just called the "boxers") to combat the foreigners.
In 1900 the boxers began a rebellion to get rid of the foreigners.
They attacked and killed westerners and Chinese Christians.
Foreigners tried to find safety in Beijing.
Outside powers, Including U.S, sent 18,000 troops, armed with weapons who freed the trapped foreigners.
Cuba: 90 miles off the east coast of Florida.
Under Spanish Rule since 1492
In 1868 Cubans started an uprising to be free of Spain's rule.
A lot of americans were sympathetic to the Cuban rebels so they asked to government to intervene and get rid of the spanish
Other Americans wanted to intervene for economic reasons like as safeguarding American Investments in Cuba (i.e. sugar and rice plantations, railroads, and iron mines)
President Cleveland ignored the calls for intervention, and as did McKinley (who was president after him)
William Randolph Hearst: Pulitzer's rival. Part of the
New York Journal.
He tried to outdo Pulitzer in the use of sensational stories and headlines while writing about intervening.
The two newspaper publishers did most of their stories about the outrage in Cuba.
In 1898 fighting broke out in Havana, which was Cuba's capital
President McKinley sent the Maine, which was a battleship, to protect American's and their property.
February 15, at 9:40 p.m, an explosion sank the Maine, killing 260 men.
No one knows what caused the explosion but the press and everyone else blamed Spain
"Remember the Maine" was the start of the Spanish-American war
Theodore Roosevelt was the assistant Secretary of the Navy.
He telegraphed commodore George Dewey, who was head of the Pacific fleet, ordering him to strike Philippines with his sips when War broke out.
On May 1, Dewey and a small fleet of American warships sank the entire Spanish Squadron at Manila bay, without losing a single American ship or life.
Many Fillipinos were in a revolt against the Spanish as well.
Emilio Aguinaldo: A rebel leader that Dewey enlisted to help him seize Manila from the Spanish.
Soon The U.S was in control of the Philippines Islands with lots of help from Emilio
They overlooked the fact that he was fighting from Philippines independence
Next fighting took place around San Diego and at sea.
American forces arrived in June.
They were poorly trained and badly equipped but they were also eager to fight.
Theodore Roosevelt led the Rough Riders
On July 1, he led his troops in successful charge up San Juan hill
U.S ships trapped Spanish fleet in Santiago Harbor
Whenever they tried escaping U.S ships destroyed it so the 24,000 trapped Spanish soldiers surrendered 2 weeks later.
After that American troops invaded Puerto Rico.
December 1898-Spain and U.S sign a peace treaty
Spain accepts Cuban Independence
Grants: Puerto Rico, The Philippines, and the Pacific Islands of Guam and Wake to the U.S
U.S pays Spain $20 million
The treaty brought debate because some people said it went against the Declaration of Independence. They also said it brought on the risk of future wars.
Expansionists, though, liked the treaty because it gave the U.S important bases and provided new business opportunities.
The senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899.
The U.S now had an overseas empire
When U.S took control of Philippines, they felt betrayed
Emilio Aguinaldo led them as they fought for Independence once more
There was a three year war
1901- Emilio was captured and the fighting stopped.
1946- They gained their Independence.
Isthmus of Panama Canal was the perfect place to build the canal.
Isthmus: narrow strip of land joining to larger areas of land
Since Panama belonged to Columbia at the time, Teddy tried to by it for $10 million with a yearly rent of $250,000
Colombians argued against this so the Colombian government asked for more money
Teddy was impatient
Teddy, knowing that Panamanians opposed Colombian rule, told them the U.S would help them gain Independence.
November 3, 1903- U.S gunboats and marines came to block Colombian troops from reaching Panama city.
Americans didn't like Teddy's role in the revolt
3 days after they gained Independence, a treaty was signed giving the U.S access to the Isthmus of Panama.
William C. Gorgas: An American expert on tropical diseases.
Most of the problems while building the canal came from disease.
By 1906 Gorgas nearly wiped out yellow fever and reduced malaria in Panama.
The "Big Ditch"
Workers had to:
Cut through a mountain
dam a river
erect canals rocks
The "Big ditch" was cutting through the Gailard cut which was a 9 mile ditch through the mountains
August 15, 1914- Panama Canal opened.
1904- Europeans wanted to use military action to collect overdue debts from Dominican Republic.
To stop that from happening, Teddy made Roosevelt Corollary as an extension to the Monroe Doctrine
Corollary: a logical extension to a doctrine or proposition.
William Howard Taft however, used the dollar diplomacy.
Dollar Diplomacy: A policy based on the idea that economic ties were the best ways to spread American influence.
The U.S. protected the investments they had made in other places by interfering in conflicts.
1913- Woodrow Wilson became President
1911- Mexico overthrew their dictator and had a revolution that lasted till 1917
1914- Wilson intervened in Mexico and American sailors were arrested
Although they were released later with an apology, Wilson sent the navy to occupy the port of Veracruz
Francisco Villa- A Mexican rebel general nicknamed Pancho
1916- Rebels went to New Mexico and caused trouble, killing 18 Americans
American Soldiers tried finding Villa but after 11 months, gave up without finding him.