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The Human Axial Skeleton
Transcript of The Human Axial Skeleton
Mrs. Nettuno, 6th Period
By Paddy McGregor & Kevin Quinn
Human skeleton, England, 1980. (n.d.). Retrieved May 13, 2013, from http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display.aspx?id=4002
The Breastbone- (or sternum) the long flat bone expanding from the neck to the abdominal region.
SEER Training: Axial Skeleton (80 bones). (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/skeletal/divisions/axial.html
The human skull consists of 27 bones
The skull serves to offer protection to the brain.
- the bars of specialized cartilage connecting the breastbone to each rib on either side (the pale orange indicates it).
Ribs are narrow bow-shaped bones. 12 pairs of ribs are connected to the vertebrae;
The first 10 which are connected to the costal cartilage make up the .
the last 2 pairs are called floating ribs and are not connected to the Breastbone
The purpose of this group of ribs is to protect the vital organs contained inside of it, including the heart and the lungs. The the thorax also plays a role in the circulatory system because flexibility of the ribs and the costal cartilage allows the chest to compress when inhaling and extend when exhaling.
Axial skeleton. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2013, from http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/SCI_ED/grade10/manphys/axial.htm
- the outer layer consisting of connective tissue that holds and protects blood vessels going in and out of the bone.
The Ribs and Breastbone consist of three layers:
- the hard dense layer of bone under the Periosteum made up of calcium rich rings with cells called osteocytes that maintain the rings and canneles that contain blood vessels called Haversian canals
- the 3rd layer or center of a bone made up of porous tissue containing red bone marrow which produced red blood cells
consists of the 33 Vertebrae bones and the fibrous cartilaginous discs between them which surround the spinal chord
The 33 vertebrae bones are grouped into 5 regions:
- The first 7 Vertebrae bones between the skull and the first pair of ribs that make up the neck and support the skull and allow it to move
- The 12 vertebrae bones which the 12 pairs of ribs are connected to
- The 5 Vertebrate bones under the rib cage that support the lower back and the organs in the ribcage and lumbar region
- The triangular-shaped bone made up of 5 vertebrae between the hip-bones
- The 4 small fused vertebrae that make up the tail bone
The composition of Each Vertebrae bone is similar to the composition of the ribs and Breastbone.
the outer layer is the Periosteum
the next layer consists of hard dense compact bone
the central layer is made up of a mass of spongy bone consisting of red bone Marrow
The Axial System
Inside the Rib Bones, Breastbone, and Vertebrae Bones, there is red bone marrow which produces Red Blood Cells. the amount of red blood cells in the blood stream is regulated by the bone marrow as well, meaning that when there is a fairly small but sudden loss of blood or when the internal organs are not getting enough oxygen, then the Spongy Bone will release and produce more red blood cells to overcome that issue
It consists of two bone systems divided into two categories:
Neurocranium- A protective vault covering the brain and the brain stem
Viscerocranium- The bones that make up the structure of the face.
Except for the mandible, all of the bones are tightly linked in joints with one another.
The axial bone structures serve an interesting purpose in maintaining the body's homeostasis.
For example, if the bloodstream is filled with too much protein or phosphorus, various bones may suck up these resources and become stronger (That's why milk is good for your bones!). And in return, if there is low calcium in your bloodstream, it will be removed from your bones.
This can cause health problems for pregnant women and/or people that lack a protein rich diet, causing your bones to become increasingly weak.
Darling, D. (n.d.). Skull. Retrieved May, 20 2013 from http://www.daviddarling.info/images/human_skull_side.jpg