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American Colonization

Concentration on English Colonization Through To Colonial Economies

Robert Baker

on 18 January 2018

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Transcript of American Colonization

The tide changed
Berkley retook Jamestown
Bacon attempted a siege, but it failed
On October 26, 1676, Bacon died of "Bloodie Flux" and "Lousey Disease" (Body Lice)

Berkely returned and subdued the leaderless rebels
Hanged major leaders

Drew to the attention of King Charles II, England investigated
Berkely was recalled to England, died in 1677

Levied and imposed taxes
Paid mostly by settlers

Money collected, not used for public goods, but for profit of planters

When hostilities arose with Native Americans, frontier settlers wanted forts for protection

Former indentured servants, had little money to buy land
Non-land owners could not vote

Often, Indentrued servants moved to the frontier for land

The Growing problem

English settlers larger in size begin pressuring the tribe to give corn and labor
They copied the Spanish and Portugeses model and rationalization

This was achieved through military force

Soldiers would set villages on fire, and kidnap hostages, one of these would be Pocahontas

5 years later
During the “Starving Time” English colonists sought trade with the Powhatan Confederacy

Leaders of the tribe sought to remove the English from Virginia

Efforts by certain leaders began to isolate the English colony

1609, The Powhatan Confederacy began to siege the settlement, to starve them out

English Colonists History
with Native Americans
Claimed authority to raise taxes and make laws

Royal Governor could veto any act passed
BUT - the Burgesses controlled his pay through taxation

Only White Landowners could participate and vote
150 years later, the House would supply delegates to the Continental Congress.

Burgess Powers

House of Burgesses
First met July 30th 1619

First representative body in colonial America

2 citizens, or ‘Burgesses’ from each district (11 districts in all)

Government in Virginia
Gov. Berkely raised armies but snubbed Bacon as a militia commander - Bacon instead became an elected "General" of a group of volunteer indian fighters
Bacon agreed to pay for the campaign - this pleased frontiersmen who paid taxes for Berkley's armies
After a prolonged political squabble, Bacon marched an army on Jamestown
Here, he confronted colonial leaders about grievances - demanded to be made general of all forces fighting Indians
He eventually got it
From July to September, Bacon controlled Jamestown

Bacon’s Rebellion
Doeg Tribe Dispute
In 1675, the Doeg attacked a plantation on the Northern neck section of VA

Fighting broke out
The colonists attacked in retaliation...but attacked the Susquehanaugs by mistake, kicking off large scale Indian raids

The Governor urged restraint
He set up a "peace" meeting but the colonists murdered some of the tribal chiefs

Settlers Reached Boiling Point
1676 c.e.
Growing divide between the colony’s poor frontier settler class, and the wealthy planter class
In part because of clashes on the frontier between the settlers and Native Americans
In reality, more of a dispute between two very stubborn, selfish leaders -
Bacons Rebellion
The Virginia Company wasted more funds, sent more soldiers, and supplies

1624 King James I revoked the V.C.’s Charter, made Virginia a Royal Colony
What did this mean?

Direct control under the King

England sent troops, and settlers, to strengthen and conquer the Powhatan

By 1644 c.e. 10,000 English men and women lived in Virginia

Results of the Massacre
English Conquest of North America and its Native Peoples
English continued in a manner similar to their Irish conquest in the 1500 and 1600’s.

Viewed Native Americans similar to, “The wild Irish”
no desire to live amongst or intermarry them although it did happen

Relations with Native Americans
Economic sense
In the early 1600’s
Indentured servant = 1,000 lbs of Tobacco
A slave might cost double or triple that

By the late 1600’s
Indentured servant population declined
Colonies’ overall wealth increased

Transition from Indentured to Slave
The Virginia Company needed the work force
Developed the headright system in 1618 c.e.
-immigration sponsorship.
Sponsor an immigrant, receive 50 acres of land.
Immigration soared.

The issue of Field Laborers

Sailed with the ‘Third Supply to Jamestown’
Began Tobacco Cultivation

1614 married Pocahontas
Had one son, Thomas
1616 Pocahontas died

Rolfe remarried, but died in 1622 after his plantation was destroyed in an Indian attack

John Rolfe
New leadership
Did not hesitate to flog or hang those that refused to work
Jamestown stabilized and began to expand

The New Jamestown
Colonists Ate:
Boiled shoe leather
Some turned to cannibalism

During this time, out of 600 colonists, 60 survived.

Starving Time
Spring of 1609 c.e., 600 new colonists arrived

By that Winter, Jamestown had deteriorated again to famine
A period known as
“Starving Time”

Jamestown cont’d
1607, amongst the 38 colonists still alive, John Smith took control
Forced labor/farming
Relations with the Powhatan tribe
John Smith injured and forced to return to England

John Smith takes over

Disease from contaminated water

Hunger flourished

The colonists were not prepared nor trained for the new life

Jamestown: The Early Years
The Journey:
3 ships: Susan Constant, Discovery, and the Godspeed

Nearly 150 passengers and crew aboard

Landed in Virginia in 1607
Claimed the new land, named the Settlement Jamestown, after their King


The Plymouth Company
Between the 38th and 45th parallel
13 August 1607 – The Popham Colony
1 year later, the company became inactive
Religious pilgrims aboard the Mayflower would become the company’s successor

The London Company
Between the 34th and 41st parallel
Established Jamestown 1607 c.e.

Hoped to find territory in the new world in an area named by Sir Walter Raleigh.

This area was called Virginia
Named after queen Elizabeth I “The Virgin Queen”

New Company
Roanoke Island
1587 c.e.

What became of them?

England’s Attempts at Colonization

29 year old planter
Son of wealthy Englishman and Berkley's Cousin

Detested Native Americans
1676, parted from Gov. Berkeley and raised an army to fight Native Americans on the Virginia Frontier

Berkley reprimanded Bacon - this caused a lot of frontiersmen to wonder who was right - Berkley or Bacon?

Nathaniel Bacon
Chief Opechancanough led raids up and down the James River.

Killed more than 340 colonists

Indian Massacre of 1622
First arrived aboard a Dutch merchant ship in 1619 c.e.
Indentured servants
They were Christians, at that time under English law, a Christian could not be a slave.
This would change over time

It would be several decades before the English colonists began the systematic use of slave labor

The First African Laborers
To work the land, many new owners imported indentured servants

In exchange for passage, food and shelter, and indentured servant would provide labor for a limited number of years
Usually 4-7 years

Indentured Servants

Helped spur the Jamestown growth
Highly Profitable

1612, colonist John Rolfe experimented by cross breeding Brazilian Tobacco and Native American weed.
Resulted in High Quality Tobacco

By the late 1620s, the colonies exported 1.5 million pounds each year

Tobacco “Brown Gold” Cultivation
John Smith – 18th Cent.

First Permanent English Settlement
was Established at Jamestown, Virginia 1607 c.e.

Surviving colonists decided to flee, but as they sailed down the James River, the colonists were met by another English ship
The English passengers convinced the colonists to turn around

The Tide Changed


The Plymouth Company

The London Company

Granted a Charter in 1606 by King James I
An English Joint Stock Companies

The Virginia Company

*Page 44, of Textbook

Jamestown Today
English Colonization
Puritan Court ordered Williams arrested but Williams already fled

January 1636, William negotiated with the Narrangansett tribe for land to set up a colony
Providence (later the capital of Rhode Island)

Williams granted separation of Church and State and religious freedoom

Founding Rhode Island

Hysteria from Indian attacks

Ergotism, from eating rye bread from grain infected by the fungus Claviceps purpurea (which is where LSD comes from)

Of course, they could have been fake, brought on by jealousy, spite, need for attention.

Theories about the seizures
Everything that happened, that was bad, the Puritans saw evil, or Satan
Girls would have strange seizures, then blame others for bewitching them

175 tried, 19 executed (hanged)

Religious faith?
Relations with indians?
Not sure….

Salem Witch Trials
Had to be a member, AND A MALE, to vote
More children born in Ameirca - political process became a problem

Church leaders felt many of those born in America lacked a personal covenant (relationship) with God - a central tenet of Puritanism
If ministers decided someone lacked the covenant, then that person was not considered a member of the church - problem?

The Church responded with the
Half-Way Covenant
Allowed partial membership in the church for children and grandchildren of original Puritan members
Did not have to have a full conversion process to participate in governance

This helped keep members in the church and maintain the church's prominence in New England

Puritan Church

The Puritans watched your:

The community would step in if necessary
Placing children in more God fearing homes
Marriage counseling
Or simply put husband and wife in the stocks or pillory

Puritan Home
September 1630 c.e. Winthrop and other colonists, aboard the Arbella, established the Massachusetts Bay Colony

Boston became their capital

EVENTUALLY, the Plymouth colony was incorporated in 1690.

Massachusetts Bay
Signed November 11th, 1620, while still aboard the Mayflower

This was an agreement to form a government,
Not a Constitution

This is sometimes considered the first American Constitution

Mayflower Compact
She was banished 1638 c.e.
Where do you think she went?

Hutchinson, cont’d
An extreme Separatist

Two controversial views
No right to claim on land unless it is purchased from Native Americans
Government officials had no right to punish those for their religious beliefs

Roger Williams

Roger Williams
Anne Hutchinson

Religious Dissenters

Giles Corey
Condemned sins

Puritan Laws
Close relationship between church and government

The members of the Civic Officials believed they were “God’s elect”
Chosen to carry out God’s will

What might Puritan laws look like?

Puritan Church Government
Communities were run using town meetings
All adults males belonging to the church could vote
Roughly 40% of the colony’s men
Church membership was tightly controlled by ministers and congregations
Towns were run as direct democracies - which meant voting members had a direct role in government
Charter allowed for a broad government - Governor, Deputy Governor, Council of Assistants, General Court that created laws
The General Court, chose the Governor
What are some foreseeable problems?

Massachusetts Bay Government
Became 1st Governor of Massachusetts

Ardent Puritan

“City Upon A Hill”

John Winthrop

More English puritans became discouraged, fled to the New World

1629, John Winthrop and some colleagues obtained a royal charter for a Joint Stock Enterprise

They then transferred the charter and headquarters to New England
Why is this important?

Massachusetts Bay Company
Mayflower Compact

First Winter 1620-1621, only half of settlers survived

Colony lasted 70 years until it was combined with the Massachusetts Bay Colony

What significance of this story for Americans today?

Fled from England to escape persecution
To Holland, and eventually to America

Set sail September 6, 1620
102 aboard Mayflower
2 deaths; 1 birth on the voyage

Sited land November 9, 1620
Settled an area known as Plymouth

The Pilgrims
Puritanism comes from the English Reformation

Sects of Christians wanted to ‘purify’ the church of all Catholicism

Those that wanted to remain in the Church of England and purify from within were labeled Puritans

Those that thought that impossible, formed independent congregations with their own ministers became known as “Separatists”

They would later be known as Pilgrims as they traveled to other nations to practice their version of Christianity

Short History of Puritans and Pilgrims
Settlement of New England

Bible readings at home

Controversial claim that “The Holy Spirit illuminates the heart of every true believer”

What this means though, is she is saying people need not the church nor minister to interpret the bible for them

Anne Hutchinson
Should a civilized society use this type of punishment?
Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay Colonies
France, like its European rival Great Britain, settled colonies to secure the valuable natural resources in North America and export them back to Europe. Quebec was the
first permanent French settlement
in North America.
The French instructed their colonists to spread the Catholic faith in the New World. The British encouraged their colonists to establish Protestantism, but they were actually more interested in the wealth of natural resources the colonists could send back to Britain.
France had the best relationship with Native Americans among the Europeans in the New World

French Colony of Quebec

Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, and Georgia

Southern Colonies

Metacom (King Philip)
Leader of the Wampanoags
Known as King Philip by the English
Wanted Indians to unite and fight settlers
Tired of observing Puritan laws
Began war, hit and run tactics, burned outlying settlements throughout New England for over a year

Food shortage, disease and casualties wore natives down
Caused a massive loss to indian life
Metacom was caught, beheaded, drawn and quartered

Puritans put his head on display in Plymouth for many years

King Phillps War (1675-76)
Founded 1733 by James Oglethorpe

Last of the 13 colonies

Named after King George III

Founded as a buffer against Spanish controlled Florida
Savannah became the major port

Names after King Charles II

1670 – English settlers from West Indies settle
Brought slavery with them

Charlestown, SC became the major southern port

Exported rice, needed a lot of slave labor

Indigo (dye for clothes) was also a big crop

1712 North Carolina split from South Carolina
Religious dissenters
Didn’t need slaves

The Carolinas
Both similar to Pennsylvania

New Jersey was ethnically and religiously diverse - Scot Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Church, and New England Congregationalists
Quakers and Anglicans represented the major land owning class

Delaware would actually be controlled by Pennsylvania until 1704, but still under the same governor until the Revolution

New Jersey and Delaware

1681, William Penn received a grant from King Charles to form a colony

Named colony Pennsylvania
He bought the land from the natives

Penn, a Quaker, created the colony as a refuge for persecuted Quakers in England and other North American colonies.

Pennsylvania offered:
Free worship to all
Social equality
NO slavery

Called "The Holy Experiment"

Called the capital - Philadelphia (Greek for 'Brotherly Love')
Dutch Director General of New Netherlands

Called on settlers to raise Arms against the British. But he was ignored

He was not a popular governor
Demonstrated a lot of religious intollerance

Surrendered without a shot

Peter Stuyvesant
King James II takes over 1685

More control over trade and colonies

Made it a single territory (Mass, Conn, RI)

Called the Dominion of
New England

Massachusetts Charter Revoked
Native American power ceased in the New England area for good

1/10th of Colonial men died

Higher proportion than the American Revolution or Civil War

Pequot’s fought with invading Settlers

1636 a Puritan militia attacked a Pequot Camp

Killed 500 men, women, children

"God laughed at the Enemies of the People, filling the place with dead bodies.” – Puritan Militia Soldier

Pequot Wars 1636-1637 C.E.
Epidemics, wiped out many Indians

1621, Thanksgiving recognition (1863 Lincoln)

More settlers=more space EXPANSION
More fighting with Natives

“If God were not pleased with our inheriting these parts, why doth he still make room for us by diminishing them as we increase?” – John Winthrop

Puritan and Native American Relations
Adopted on Jan. 14, 1638/39 c.e.

Contains features of a written constitution

Considered by some as the first written constitution in the Western Tradition
Hence Connecticut’s nickname: The Constitution State

Gave men more voting rights than some colonies and opened up more office positions to them

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
James I granted Earl of Warwick right to settle the area west of Narragansett Bay

Warwick gave this grant to 15 Puritan lords as a refuge

These Patentees made John Winthrop Jr. Governor


Slaves tried to make the best of their lives

Communities were rich and vibrant with dance, music, and arts

Many came from different parts of Africa

African Culture in America
Sea voyage that carried Africans to North America

2 of every 10 slaves died

Three-way voyage:
First – ships would take rum, cloth, etc, to Africa and trade for slaves
Second – Slaves would travel the middle passage to America
Third – Sell the slaves, buy American goods (tobacco) and transport it back to Britain

The Middle Passage
Passed by Great Britain
All goods shipped must travel in British ships
Goods from the colonies going to Europe had to go through Britain first
Then paid taxes
No trading directly with Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, or their colonies

Some goods could only go to Britain

How does this follow the practice of mercantalism?

Navigation Acts

Favorable Balance of Trade
Export more than you import
Acquire as many resources as possible – specifically gold and silver
As you get stronger, your enemy gets weaker

British viewed America as a way to make Britain stronger

Because of this economic theory…
The British wanted to control trade - why?

Colonial Economy
New York – Settled by Dutch in 1614
Called New Netherlands
Manhattan was called New Amsterdam
it was noted for its diverse population and its tolerance

British Conquered it in 1664, named it New York

Religious toleration, Dutch invited to stay

New York
Originally called the “River Colony”
Organized March 3, 1636 as a safe-haven for Puritan Nobleman

Farms got bigger and populations grew - there were fewer people willing to travel as indentured servants

There was also the issue of - free indentured servants owning land and challenging authority (Bacon's Rebellion)

The demand for life long slavery went up
a shift towards race based chattel slavery

Black people viewed as savages - as "other"

Some whites used religion to justify slavery

New England
Mid-Atlantic (Middle) Colonies
In 1632, King Charles I of England granted a charter to George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore

George Calvert died before settlement began
his son Cecilius followed his father's pursuit
Sought to establish Maryland as a haven for Roman Catholics persecuted in England.

In March 1634, the first English settlers–a carefully selected group of Catholics and Protestants–arrived at St. Clement’s Island aboard the Ark and the Dove.

Triangular Trade (Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade)
Animated Map of Atlantic Slave Trade

Colonial Economy
Mercantalism and Trade
Spanish Exploration and Settlement
St. Augustine

Founded 1565
First Permanent Colony
French Exploration and Colonization
Early Immigration and Discovery
American Colonization
Jamestown Settlement Simulation

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