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Year 9 Design and Technology
Transcript of Year 9 Design and Technology
*Come in, take your seat and stand behind the stool!
*GOOD MORNING/ AFTERNOON
*Different warning system! *Sustainability
*CAD/ Solid Modeling
* What are we going to do this year? Starter:
Add at least 3 full sentences explaining some of the hazards in the workshop (focus on literacy: Spelling, Punctuation, Grammar) e.g. "The man is not wearing any gloves to protect his hands from the machine, this could injure him" Learning Objectives:
All Students: Will be able to explain what is meant by the "6 R's" (Level 4)
Most Students: Will describe the effect of different materials on the environment (Level 5)
Some Students: Will be able to analyse the impact of not maintaining a sustainable future. (Level 6+) What do you understand by the term "6 R's" with reference to Design and Technology? (Use the images to help you!) Main activity 1: Reduce -is it possible to reduce the amount of materials used?
This will help to protect valuable resources.
Rethink - is there a better way to solve this problem that is less damaging to the environment?
Refuse - this means not accepting things that are not the best option for the environment. For example, is the packaging really needed?
Recycle - could recycled materials be used, or is the product made from materials that are easy to recycle?
Reuse - could the product have another use? Could its parts be used
in other products? Is this information clearly communicated on the
product? This will extend its life.
Repair - is the product easy to repair? This will extend its life. The answer... You each have an item on your desk... discuss the environmental impacts of these...
*Life cycle (What happens from when it is born, to when it dies)
*Materials and their impact
*Can they be reused/ recycled etc?
4 Minutes Discussion and then Feedback. Investigation time! (Effective Participants!) What are the 6 R's?? Write down on your piece of paper... Plenary... Key words:
Sustainability, Environment, Impact, Recycle, Reduce, Reuse, Rethink, Repair, Refuse! What are the differences? Design vs. Drawing... Independent Investigators!! Lesson Objectives:
All Students: Will be able to explain the key differences between drawing and design (Level 4)
Most Students: Will be able to apply knowledge of a user in order to adapt design ideas to suit this target (Level 5)
Some Students: Will evaluate the importance of user research before designing products (Level 6+) You will be given a "Target User" card. This will have details about the person, including their lifestyle.
It is your task to design a new bird box that will suit the needs of this person! You have 25 MINUTES! Main Activity: Key words: Target Market, User, Lifestyle, Preferences Explain in a sentence why you designed your bird box like you did to suit the user- using key words from the lesson! Matching Users to Products... Match the product to the user... WHY? Plenary Must we be careful when generalising in designs for users?
There is a word beginning with "S" we must be careful of! Final Thought... Do Now: On the piece of ISOMETRIC paper I have given you, try to create the initials of your name in 2d. Lesson Objectives:
All Students: Will be able to explain the principles of isometric drawing, its uses, and will be able to construct a cube (Level 4)
Most Students: Will be able to demonstrate a medium complexity drawing of 3 dimensional isometric stairs (Level 5)
Some Students: Will be able to construct an "impossible shape" in the isometric style. (Level 6+) What is isometric drawing? Sustainability Task 1: You need to create a research poster
for our sustainability project... It must have:
A definition explaining sustainability (Level 3)
Picture Examples- Mood Board Styles (Level 4)
Facts and explanations of impacts (Level 5)
Links to our project, and how this is going to make a an impact on the future of SGC! (Level 6+) Independent Investigators: Starter Attach your sustainability
In pairs, think of a definition for "Existing product analysis" All Students: Will be able to explain the purpose of and carry out an existing product analysis
Most Students: Will develop a brief for their project, applying research gathered.
Some Students: Will evaluate the brief to create a specification for their project. Big Picture...
To understand the purpose of evaluating existing designs, and apply key words to products. Key Words: Purpose Target Market User What is the function and purpose of the product?
What are the different parts of the product and how do they work together?
How does the product use shape, form, colour, texture and decoration?
What materials and components are used to make the product?
Which processes were used to make the product?
Who would buy this product?
How well does the product do its job compared with other similar products?
What is unique about the product? Questions questions questions! Function Materials Components USP Shape Processes Your Turn... Analyse the following 2 Existing Designs! (Independent Enquirers) How good do you think your partner's analysis is?
What is good about it???
What could be improved??? Peer- Evaluation... Year 9- Welcome to CAD
Starter... What is CAD???? You have made two 3d shapes using only 5 different tools.
Now, onto some more advanced stuff. Repeat this, moving up the arc, until you see this. And that’s all there is to it really.
How to make any shape imaginable, with nine tools and a keyboard shortcut. So, lets move out of the realm of tools and tool bars and into the realm of keyboard short-cuts.
There is only one that you need be concerned with, but it is very useful in making more advanced models. Now, when you select one of the squares, you should see something like this. The outlines of the separate shapes are selected, and there is a thick line around the two shapes themselves. If you double click on either one you can edit the component. Lets turn one of them into a cube, using the new tool of ours.
First, double click on one of the squares, and select the Tape Measure Tool. Measure one of the sides, remember that number, then select the push/pull tool. Pull the side up, along the blue axis, until the value in the bottom right is the same as the length of the sides. Click to drop the face where you want it.
Click away from the component, and click back to it and you should see this. (see next slide) You may remember, that when we made our cube we only used five of the available tools on the toolbar. We managed quite well, but it took a while. Now lets show you how to make a cube significantly faster, but first, you need to know what all the other tools do. Do this again, going to the left, until you see this. Click, and if you have done it right, you should see this. Now, repeat this for every corner of your circle. Like so. IF you get it right, you end up with something that looks like the top of a bird cage. Take this hemisphere. Half of it is red, half of it is white. Create another one, but this time, don’t rotate it. Select all of it, and press S on your keyboard. You should see this.
Click on the green point in the middle of the circle, and drag it until the circle is reversed. Should look like this.
Click to drop the point, and press Esc on your keyboard to exit scale mode. You now have a mirror image of the original hemisphere. This technique is especially useful if you wish to make a full sphere, just put the two hemispheres together. We are all familiar with the standard ‘qwerty’ keyboard layout. The one shortcut we will be using is;
S – scale – allows you to scale an object/component around a point.
This doesn’t sound like much, but the ramifications are enormous.
For example, using the rotate tool it is very difficult to get a mirror image of something. Here, I'll show you. Our component is a bit boring right now though, so lets add a bit of colour. Double click on it, and select the Paint Bucket tool.
Lets make it a bit more orange shall we.
Select orange, and click on the faces you want to fill in.
Easy as that, just press the little red X to exit the menu, and select another tool to proceed. As promised, lets have a look at components before we go any further.
First of all – what is a component?
Basically, a component is a set of objects, that have been grouped together and given a name. To help explain, lets make one shall we?
Make yourself two squares, so they look like this.
They don’t need to be identical, just separate.
Select them both, and click the Make Component icon. A pop up window should come up, where you can give your component a name, and describe it. Lets call it Two Squares, but not bother with a description.
Click the create button. This is the tricky bit.
Select the first side up, of the arc going along the green axis. Then select the corresponding point on the other side.
Drag the arc the rightmost point on the circle, along the red axis.
Like so. As with the cube, we now have the base of our shape. Lets make it 3d?
First, select the arc tool. Click on the bottom most endpoint of your shape, and follow the green axis to the top of it.
Then, click, and drag circle up, until its radius is the same as the radius of the circle. The program will tell you when this happens. Click to drop the half circle. Now we have a square, with the four sides of a cube raised on it. Now for the last four lines. Select the rectangle tool, click on the top of one line, and drag the square to the top of the opposite line, like this.
Click again to drop the square, and you will have completed the cube, and the program will have filled in all the sides, like this.
Now, you have a very large, white cube.
This method can be used to make any four sided shape. So, we have the base of our cube, so now lets build up this sides.
Select the line tool and draw along one side. The program will put the line along the side between the two ‘endpoints’. This will tell you how long the sides of the cube are.
Now, with the line tool, click on one of the corners, and drag the line up. If you do it right, the line should go blue, which means that the program is making the line follow the vertical axis. It should look like this. Click again to ‘drop’ the line, do this for each corner, until you have this. Unfortunately, not everything you will ever want to draw is square, or rectangular. Some things are round.
First, select the circle tool, click where you want the centre of your circle, and drag out.
Click to drop the circle. How about a cube.
Click where you want the corner of your cube, and drag the pointer across and you will see a wireframe square appear. The diagonal line tells you that it is a square, and not a rectangle.
Let go of the pointer, and you should see this, a filled in grey square. The program automatically fills in any flat planes, with a grey/white fill. Your screen should now look like this, and you are now ready to draw.
Before we start, a few basic controls:
The scroll wheel on your mouse zooms in and out.
This helps you to move around your model, as the camera zooms in on the pointer. Once you have chosen your template you should be presented with this screen.
Its up to you, but what I always do next is:
Click on the woman so she looks like this.
Then press the Delete key, to get rid of her.
She is all well and good, but she is only 2d, and she can get in the way when you are doing things. If you want her back, you can always open a new model and copy paste her over again. First things first – open SketchUp.
You may be asked to choose a ‘Template’
For everyday use, choose the
Simple Template – mm
Press the Start using SketchUP
button to proceed. Now it is a mirror image. With the scale tool, it takes one click to achieve this result. Lets see how shall we? Take this hemisphere. Half of it is red, half of it is white. I create another identical one, and rotate it 180 degrees.
They still aren’t mirror images of one another. I have to do another rotation to get a mirror image, like this. Well Done, you made a component. If all has gone according to plan, your component should now look like this. Its still called two squares though, and its not two squares any more. Lets change the name shall we.
Right click on the component, and click on the Entity Info button. Click on the Definition Name box, and lets call it Cube and Square. You should see this.
Press the little red X when you have finished editing. Paint Bucket – this lets you change the colour/texture of a selected face. Tape Measure Tool – this tells you the distance between two points. Eraser – this is another delete tool – not all that useful. Make Component – this turns the selected object(s) into a component. We’ll have a look at components next. (is greyed out until object(s) are selected. We know what the first five, and middle four tools to, but lets now look at the middle four. One last look as the toolbar. Offset – this expands the object evenly around the centre. Rotate – this lets you rotate the object around any point, and on any plain. Move – this moves the selected object. Push/Pull – this lets you push or pull the face of an object. Were not going to go through the icons in order, as the set were going to look at first are more useful than the others. As you know, this is your standard toolbar. Arc tool – lets you draw an arc, from one point to another, with a set number of sides. Default is 12 sides Circle tool – lets you draw a polygon with a set number of sides. Default is 24 sides Rectangle tool – lets you draw a 2d rectangle Line tool – draws straight lines. Pointer – lets you select things. Lets go through the icons one by one... At the top of your screen, you have this toolbar.
The selected tool’s icon is ‘depressed’ Step 1 Starter:
Write the Big Picture: To understand a specification, and apply this to a project.
Create your product specification by matching up the sentence structures.... Extension: What is the point of a specification before we start a project? Learning Objectives:
All students: will be able to explain the purpose of a specification, and link our own project to specification points (LEVEL 4)
Most Students: will apply their understanding of tools and materials to begin their project
Some Students: will analyse their own work to assess progress Step 1:
Make sure all edges of your plywood are smooth by using sand paper to give a clean edge. Step 1:
Using a pencil, steel rule and try square, mark out 3 lines that are 12cm apart. These will be used as guidelines for when cutting. 12 How many mm in 12cm?? Tip: the try square is the best tool to make sure you are creating 90 degree angles! Step 2:
Use your tenon saw to cut down as far as you can on both sides of the line How are we going to cut the material in the middle of the 2 cuts?? Independent Investigators... Are the lines from our tenon saw accurate and in line?? Quality Check... Hint: Think of our saws! Step 4:
Use the coping saw to reach the rest of the wood in the middle!
DON'T GO TOO HARD AND SNAP IT!! Starter:
Create a design for a table based on a shape you have seen today.
Line drawing only! Google Sketchup Task 1:
Create a new design for a bird house using the skills you have acquired with Google Sketchup
Investigate some new tools!!
Time Limit: 20 Minutes Step 5:
Use some FINE sandpaper to remove any excess material from your wood.. this is called the PREPARATION STAGE. Step 6:
Apply a WATERPROOF finish to your box using the brushes and colours provided! Step 7
Mark out where you want your circle to fit the bird in!
Use a ruler to find the centre (X marks the spot!) and a compass to create the circle Maths: The Diameter is 30mm
The Radius is 15mm Step 8:
Mark out where your bird stand is going to be- this is 12mm diameter Step 9:
Drill both holes using a forstner bit for the large hole, and a standard 12mm piece for the stand. Step 10:
Touch up any splinters that remain from the drilling process. Use some fine sandpaper for this! Step 11:
Use the line bender to create the roof to your house- make sure you mark out where your bends will be! Think in pairs: Plastic cup- can be recycled, more than 1 use so good life cycle. Can break because it is made of plastic. Plastic very expensive to recycle.
Ceramic Mug- Can be re- used for different drinks, big cracks difficult to repair.Easy to manufacture
Metal Pencil Case- Aluminium, Can be recycled, although expensive and requires high temperatures Multi use- toy and pencil case.
Plastic Drink bottle- Made from PETE- Recyclable, but requires a lot of heat. Lid made from polypropylene. Different materials have different recycling codes- probably a short life cycle unless re- used.
Masking Tape- Cardboard part can be recycled. Short life span for tape as it loses it's stick after 1 use!
Picture Frame- Made from a soft wood. Can be recycled. Can be reused and repaired (painted) Starter: Write the title "Materials Analysis"
Use the notes below to write down a summary of the materials we looked at last lesson... Learning Objectives: All Students: Will be able to explain what CAD is and why it is used (Level 4a)
Most Students: Will be able to apply knowledge of simple Google Sketchup tools to create a line, Square and Cube (Level 5c)
Some Students: Will be able to experiment with different tools on Google Sketchup (Level 5b) Step 1 The wood we used started out at 480mm x 150. This is MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard).
Mark vertical lines 120mm apart to create 4 squares. Step 2 Using a try- square, check these lines are at 90 degrees to the length of the wood. Step 3 Using a tenon saw, cut down as far as you can on each side of the wood- this will not go all the way through. Step 4 Using a coping saw, cut the rest of the wood in between the 2 cuts made by the tenon saw. Step 5 Use a ruler to mark out 2 drilling points for the face of the bird box.
Using the pillar drill, drill one hole with a 12mm bit to create the hole for the perch and using a forstner bit, drill a 30mm diameter hole for entry/ exit. Step 6 Choose the appropriate colour acrylic paint and apply this with a paint brush. Step 7 Using the hot glue gun, and a partner, glue the sides of the box accurately, again using a try square to make sure it is square. Step 8 Using a line bender, and coloured acrylic, create the roof of the house by making a series of bends in the acrylic. Step 9 Draw around the base of the bird box on to a piece of clear acrylic. this is cut using the band saw, and stuck on with hot glue. Characteristics of a Level 5+ Design Page Good quality drawing
Different views Extension... can you make it in to 3d? From the Greek:
ISO meaning "Equal"
METRIC meaning "Measure" There is NO PERSPECTIVE with isometric drawing Examples Question...
Why not just use a sketch? Homework: Complete the tutorial of how to create a hole in an isometric cube (this skill will be used for drawing the bird box!) Due
tomorrow! Task 1: Complete the mini exercise to get in to the isometric way of working 4 Minutes Independent Investigators... 3 Levels of difficulty. Can you beat the clock to draw the shapes?
Beginner (Level 4): 3 Minutes
Intermediate (Level 5): 4 Minutes
Expert (Level 6): 5 Minutes Starter Lesson Objectives: All students: Will demonstrate accuracy in measuring the sides of their bird house using a try square. (Level 4a-4c)
Most Students: Will understand and demonstrate how to accurately use a tenon saw to cut a guide line (Level 5a-5c)
Some Students: Will separate the sides of their bird box accurately using a coping saw. (Level 6a-4a) Plenary... As you leave the room you need to give me your current level, and a key word from today's lesson.
This can be linked to health and safety, practical work, tools or materials! Finished? Help a partner on your table check their accuracy Question: Why won't it go all the way down? We are about to do a practical lesson...
Individually, Name 5 health and safety tips you need to remember when working in the workshop. Lesson Objectives: All students: Will demonstrate accuracy in measuring the sides of their bird house using a try square. (Level 4a-4c)
Most Students: Will understand and demonstrate how to accurately use a tenon saw to cut a guide line (Level 5a-5c)
Some Students: Will separate the sides of their bird box accurately using a coping saw. (Level 6a-4a)